Statistical analyses were performed with IBM SPSS Statistics 23 (SPSS, Chicago, Ill). Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 24.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). The second link includes a video on how to test these two types of validity in SPSS. Future research should focus on assessing the performance of app versions installed on smartphones vs tablets. ). Statistics, Research, & SPSS: The Basics SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) is a software program that makes the calculation and presentation of statistics relatively easy. Concurrent validity refers to the extent to which the test scores correspond to already established or accepted performance, known as criterion. The intermittent lines indicate the cutoff for clinically relevant differences, that is, >2° for angular and >2 mm for linear measurements. Sections. 0000000629 00000 n 0000008610 00000 n The overall mean age was 23.1±2.2 years, body mass index 23.6±2.13 kg/m2 and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index score was 3.9±6.4. Reliability (ie, the degree to which the measurement is free from measurement error) was determined using paired t-test and the limits of agreement on measurements acquired by the three programs (session 1 vs session 2). Mobile health applications, in the absence of an authentic regulation, does the usability score correlate with a better medical reliability? $\begingroup$ Also a brief point of terminology, to help you understand any material you might read on the topic: A question or statement in a questionnaire (but not a group of questions) is what is called an “item”. Given the increasing exposure of young generations to technology and the widespread use of dentistry-related mobile apps by students, practitioners, and patients to obtain information, apps can supplement traditional teaching methods as part of the TEL approach. You determine this by correlating your classifications (x) with classifications or scores from a criterion measure (y). 0000001426 00000 n Opener. 5. The scale also demonstrated good predictive validity in patients recovering from MI with individual items being related to mental and physical functioning at 3 months' follow-up, cardiac rehabilitation class attendance, and speed of return to work. The ICCs and/or lower border of the 95% CI of U1 to NB (mm) and L1 to NA (mm) were below .7 and of ANB as well as SN to GoGn were below .9. Criterion-related validity is concerned with the relationship between individuals’ performance on two measures tapping the same construct. 0000001622 00000 n It refers to the extent to which the results of a particular test … The test scores are truly useful if they can provide a basis for precise prediction of some criteria. Likewise, recently introduced apps (ie, software applications designed to run on smartphones and tablets),3 facilitate automatic calculation of cephalometric measurements following hand-operated landmark identification. This video covers material from Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences (4th edition) by Gravetter and Forzano. Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing results between AIMS and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-2 (PDMS-2). The factor loadings of the 20 items on the 3 subscales ranged from. Tracing periods were set to 1 hour to prevent operator fatigue. Concurrent validity Convergent validity states that tests having the same or similar constructs should be highly correlated. The free versions of the CephNinja and OneCeph15 apps were downloaded from the Google Play Store on March 30, 2018 (Google Inc, Mountain View, Calif) on a Samsung Galaxy S8 smartphone (Samsung Telecommunications, Suwon, South Korea). This concurrent validity study comparing IRD measurements made with digital nylon calipers to those made with USI offers preliminary evidence to support the validity of using calipers in both males and females when measuring IRD above the umbilicus with the abdominal muscles both at rest and during contraction. Concurrent validity is the degree to which results from a test agree with the results from . spss psychometrics validity. 925 0 obj <> endobj Regarding reliability testing, in contrast to OneCeph and Viewbox, no CephNinja value fell below the recommended cutoffs for reliability.21 Consequently, CephNinja seems to be the most reliable of all three tools, in clinical terms, for cephalometric analysis. Table 1 shows the means and standard deviations (SD) of all cephalometric measurements obtained with Viewbox and apps at both sessions. We thus set out to assess concurrent validity and reliability of the BOT2 in CP children. Exploring outliers showed that they were not related to one specific cephalogram/patient. The correlation coefficient ranged from 0.39 to 0.84. Both can be determined using Pearson r. So, calculate Pearson r using SPSS. This study provided a detailed analytical assessment of the validity and reliability of linear and angular cephalometric measurements obtained by CephNinja and OneCeph apps. The performance of FSST was compared with the functional reach test (FRT) to establish the concurrent validity. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of two smartphone cephalometric analysis apps compared with Viewbox software. Concurrent validity of OneCeph and CephNinja apps (ie, the degree to which an outcome measure measures the construct it purports to measure) was estimated by comparing the first session measurements of each app to the reference standard (ie, Viewbox) using repeated-measures analysis of variance. The BOT2-CF is divided into 4 motor area composites, 2 Recommendations. SPSS Windows was used for all statistical analyses. xref The sample size, extent of the repeated measurements, robustness of statistical methods, and masking of patient identifiers applied in this investigation are deemed more advantageous compared with similar research.12–14 As in the study of Goracci and Ferrari,12 the long experience in cephalometrics and on-screen digitization of the examiner who performed all tracings might have also contributed to the more favorable results, since it is well-recognized that the operator's experience in landmark identification affects cephalometric measurements.26,27 The selected cephalometric landmarks need to be considered when interpreting the results of such research. In order to estimate this type of validity, test-makers administer the test and correlate it with the criteria. �1�T��++��# All 13 children with DS were asked to undergo FRT. Concurrent validity and predictive validity are two approaches of criterion validity. The Brief IPQ showed good test–retest reliability and concurrent validity with relevant measures. a Descriptive statistics were calculated for TAI and TAI-Q total, subscores, and item scores. The validity test Product Moment Pearson Correlations done by correlating each item questionnaire scores with the totally score. The SRSSDL_Ita, and the SDLI were used. Assessing concurrent validity involves comparing a new test with an existing test (of the same nature) to see if they produce similar results. Paired t-test showed that there was a significant difference between sessions when measuring U1 to NA with Viewbox and when measuring ANB, L1 to NB and the interincisal angle with CephNinja (Table 2). To eliminate interobserver variability and to focus on the intertool variability, a single examiner (Dr Livas) traced the radiographs randomly first using Viewbox, then OneCeph, and finally CephNinja. This type of validity is similar to predictive validity. For instance, Item 1 might be the statement “I feel good about myself” rated using a 1-to-5 Likert-type response format. 40.7k 22 22 gold badges 137 137 silver badges 241 241 bronze badges. Concurrent validity is a concept commonly used in psychology, education, and social science. When measuring U1 to NA (mm) with OneCeph and when measuring L1 to NB (mm) with either OneCeph or CephNinja, measurements were systematically lower compared with those obtained from Viewbox. The important thing to recognize is that they work together – if you can demonstrate that you have evidence for both convergent and discriminant validity, then you’ve by definition demonstrated that you have evidence for construct validity. Means and SDs of Cephalometric Measurements Obtained With Viewbox and Apps at Both Sessions. Concurrent validity focuses on the extent to which scores on a new measure are related to scores from a criterion measure administered at the same time, whereas predictive validity uses the scores from the new measure to predict performance on a criterion measure administered at a later time. 26th Feb, 2015. other measures of the same or similar constructs. The ICC of the comparison between OneCeph and Viewbox ranged from .903 to .983 (Table 2). A concurrent validity study design was conducted in a Bachelor level nursing degree programme located in Italy. icon-arrow-top icon-arrow-top. Concurrent validity between the CBM and the other balance and mobility tests was assessed using the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (ρ) since the results of the 8-level balance scale (p < .001), errors during 3MTW (p < .001), and gait speed test (p < .05) were not normally distributed according to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Repeated-Measures Analysis of Variance and ICC of Measurements Obtained with Viewbox and Apps During the First Session With Viewbox as Reference. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs; two-way mixed-effects model, single measures, absolute agreement) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Earlier research on the validity of smartphone cephalometric analysis apps operating on tablets and smartphones compared with manual and computerized cephalometric analysis has yielded contradictory results.12–14 Given the exponential growth of apps and the current lack of a systematic approach to evaluate the validity and reliability of mobile apps,10 continuous monitoring of the measurement properties of apps is needed. The lower border of the 95% CI of SN to GoGn was below .7 and those of U1 to NA (mm) and L1 to NB (mm) were below .9. To test for factor or internal validity of a questionnaire in SPSS use factor analysis (under data reduction menu). Manuscript received Mar 31 2008, accepted for publication Aug 11 2008. doi:10.2223/JPED.1836 442 However, a difference of less than two units of measurement (millimeters or degree) is deemed to be within clinically acceptable limits.22,23, Multidisciplinary consultation using smartphone cephalometric analysis apps may be beneficial in distant rural areas with a high need for orthodontic and orthognathic surgery care and rare or totally unavailable specialized oral health services. Statistical analyses were performed with IBM SPSS Statistics 23 (SPSS, Chicago, Ill). This dataset is designed for learning how to conduct convergent and divergent validity through Factor Analysis. Isokinetic dynamometer in the extent to which the test scores are truly useful if they can provide basis! Results, then the new test is validated against some concurrently available information includes a video on to... 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