dunning school quizlet

A vocabulary and concept tool that allows students to study online "cards" and test themselves in various ways. And he added a few observations of his own, such as "education soon lost its novelty for most of the Negroes"; they would "spend their last piece of money for a drink of whisky"; and, being "by nature highly emotional and excitable…, they carried their religious exercises to extreme lengths. They appealed to scalawags (white Southerners who supported the Republican Partyafter the civil war and during the time of reconstruction). 215-938-0290 Dunning's antipathy in Reconstruction is generously heaped on all groups, regardless of race, color, creed, or sectional origins. Expert Session Quiz Expert: Liza Dunning Title: Developing Your Brand Voice 1. Yet while these works abounded in horrified references to "negro rule" and "negro government", blacks in fact played little role in the narratives. [6], In the 1940s Howard K. Beale began to define a different approach. When the writers spoke of "the South" or "the people", they meant whites. Charles Beard was born in the Indiana Corn Belt in 1874. Cognitive biases are often a result of your brain's attempt to simplify information processing. Multiplication Fact Practice - Mutliplication Games . "Was the Grant of Black Suffrage a Political Error? It is named for Columbia University professor William Archibald Dunning who taught many of its followers. Du Bois directly challenged the Dunning school of thought in his 1935 book “Black Reconstruction in America,” and in the final chapter, titled “The Propaganda of History,” he catalogs the long campaign of bias and misinformation promoted by these influential historians. "[9][10], The fact that blacks took part in government, wrote E. Merton Coulter in the last full-scale history of Reconstruction written entirely within the Dunning tradition, was a "diabolical" development, "to be remembered, shuddered at, and execrated." He suggests that … According to the New Georgia Encyclopedia, he "framed his literary corpus to praise the Old South, glorify Confederate heroes, vilify northerners, and denigrate southern blacks." Working with Nature for Society's Well Being. Explaining the success of the Dunning School, historian Peter Novick noted two forces—the need to reconcile the North and the South after the Civil War and the increase in racism as Social Darwinism appeared to back the concept with science—that contributed to a "racist historiographical consensus" around the turn of the 20th century on the "criminal outrages" of Reconstruction. The dunning school a view of reconstruction - Lincoln's plan to restore the south with minimum humiliation and max speed was thwarted by radical republicans (motivated by … It engaged in "distortion by exaggeration, by a lack of perspective, by superficial analysis, and by overemphasis," while ignoring "constructive accomplishments" and failing to acknowledge "men who transcended the greed" of the age. In short, they have not turned history on its head, but rather, they recognize that much of what Dunning's disciples have said about reconstruction is true. Beale indicated other southern historians' making more positive contributions were "southern liberals" such as C. Vann Woodward and Francis Simkins.[7]. Below are some of the steps to finding a lab to work in at Johns Hopkins: Look on the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Department of Neuroscience website and/or the Student Opportunities page. The sympathies of the "Dunningite" historians lay with the white Southerners who resisted Congressional Reconstruction: whites who, organizing under the banner of the Conservative or Democratic Party, used legal opposition and extralegal violence to oust the Republicans from state power. 215-938-0290 Test your understanding of International trade concepts with Study.com's quick multiple choice quizzes. "An Analysis of Some Reconstruction Attitudes,", This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 23:24. Essentially, low ability people do not possess the skills needed to recognize their own incompetence. The human brain is powerful but subject to limitations. They are not, however, chiefly characterized by their hostility toward ethnic groups. It is named for Columbia University professor William Archibald Dunning who taught many of its followers. Pine Road Elementary School. While grading essays by his GED students, Jake reads a gruesome, enthralling piece penned by janitor Harry Dunning: fifty years ago, Harry somehow survived his father"s … He taught at the University of Georgia for sixty years, founded the Southern Historical Association, and edited the Georgia Historical Quarterly for fifty years, so he had many avenues of influence. 1. The Johns Hopkins Neuroscience Department site lists many of the neuroscience-related researchers on all Hopkins campuses.You can also consult departmental web pages and other online information. Missed a question here and there? Most white Northerners sympathetic to South but were lied to by radical Republicans, KKK was good, Reconstruction was an era of corruption, greed, and political ambition, high taxes, high debt, founder of the Dunning school, professor at Columbia who misled generations of students, student of Dunning, wrote The Tragic Era: The Revolution After Lincoln, which was a "historical work" that was mainly fantasy, received widespread applause for novel, 1915 film, depicted Ku Klux Klan as the good guys rescuing poor whites from the animalistic blacks, Northerners are blindsided by the Republicans and their evil schemes, challenged Traditional school, Dunning school didn't see African Americans as equals, Reconstruction was an idealistic ateempt to create a socially fair society and was not driven by hatred, Black Reconstruction in America, he was ignored because he used Marxist theory in his work, achievements of Reconstruction were overlooked and shortcomings exaggerated, wrote The Negro in Mississippi, focused on Mississippi during Reconstruction, corruption was nation-wide, both in North and South, more corruption present actually in "white redeemer" phase, used primary sources, Era of Reconstruction, KKK and white Southerners victimized blacks, white Northerners were aware of what was happening, Republicans did not go far enough because without economic dependence, social and political independence was fragile; 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments were good, primary goal was to win the war, stated that states must abolish slavery, 10% of voters must take oath of loyalty, and then the state can return to the Union, Congress rejects this, Southerner who despised both the planter elite and the aristocracy of the Northeast, championed poor whites but not slaves or emancipation, Lincoln's running mate in 1864 and became president after Lincoln's death, set up governments almost exactly like the ones they had in the Confederacy if oath of allegience to Constitution sworn, revoking of ordinances of secession, ratify 13th Amendment, was impeached for violation of Tenure of Office Act (1867) where no Cabinet members can be fired by president w/o approval of Senate, was not removed from office, was broken politically, laws enacted by state legislatures to drive former slaves back to plantations, Johnson turns a blind eye because he was being flattered by those people, extends Freedman's Bureau's lifetime, gives it direct funding, and authorized agents to investigate mistreatment of blacks, ex-slaves were citizens and granted them rights of contract, access to coutrs, and protection of person and property, not all Republicans were radicals, Traditional school viewed them as greedy, ambitious, and hating towards South, many were actually involved with pre-war anti-slavery movements = many were abolitionists, wanted equality for freedmen in South, law is not enough and federal gov't must step in and help, led by Sumner in the Senate and Thaddeus Stevens in the House, all persons born or naturalized in the US are citizens, and no state can take away any of the rights guaranteed to the freedmen, limited power of state governments as well as federal government, Johnson thought he could use this as leverage in the 1866 elections, but his "Swing Around the Circle" failed and made him a fool, forbade states to discriminate from voting based on race, color, or previous servitude, blacks couldn't vote, not even in many Northern states (except New England), until passage of 15th Amendment, House is allowed to impeach government officials and charge with treason, bribery or other high crimes and misdemeanors, Johnson impeached for violation of Tenure of Office Act, Senate acts as court for impeachment, they were one vote short of removing Johnson from office and so Johnson stayed, but he was broken, fixed amount that each citizen had to pay to vote, blacks were poor and many could not afford to pay it so they didn't get the chance to vote, tests to see if voters were literate, most were unfair towards blacks and disqualified many blacks. What is the difference between tone and voice? More importantly, in a second wave of vio… Expresses brands human qualities b. While he did not study with Dunning or at Columbia University, the Southern historian E. Merton Coulter represented some typical views. A NOVEL APPROACH TO POLITICS QUIZLET ... a high school English teacher in a Maine town. Foner points to several key turning points. They recognize the shabby aspects of the era: the corruption was real, the failures obvious, the tragedy undeniable. 3737 Pine Road, Huntingdon Valley, PA 19006. Finding it impossible to believe that blacks could ever be independent actors on the stage of history, with their own aspirations and motivations, Dunning, et al. It was part of the edifice of the Jim Crow System. The Warren Court ended the practice of citing Bowers and other Dunning School authors. And it was only after the Civil Rights revolution swept away the racist underpinnings of that old view—i.e., that black people are incapable of taking part in American democracy—that you could get a new view of Reconstruction widely accepted. The views of the Dunning School dominated scholarly and popular depictions of the era from about 1900 to the 1930s. More important, the concentration of "evidence" in this single scantily researched volume suggested that Dunning's "racist" generalizations were more unexamined than "inflexible. Although "Dunningite" historians did not necessarily endorse those extralegal methods, they did tend to palliate them. Learn More Image of Rhine River bend Orsoy in the Lower … He details the significant amount of financial mismanagement by both white and black Republicans in southern state governments. Dunning believed that allowing blacks to vote and hold office had been "a serious error". [13], Stampp then noted that "Dunningites overlooked a great deal", and revisionists rejected "the two-dimensional characters that Dunning's disciples have painted. What is a brand voice? The World’s Top Car Manufacturers by Market Cap. See what Vaudie Dunning (vaughtie) found on Pinterest, the home of the world's best ideas. Individual score profiles are constructed and converted into grade equivalents according to norms based on samples of the public school population. While the work was largely ignored by historians at the time, later revisionist scholars lauded DuBois's analysis.[12]. A generation of students who studied under John W. Burgess and William A. Dunning contributed to an era in Reconstruction historiography that became known as the “ Dunning School ”. Some of these biases are related to memory.The way you remember an event may be biased for a number of rea… View the high-resolution of the infographic by clicking here.. Smith, John David and J. Vincent Lowery, eds. The combination of poor self-awareness and low cognitive ability leads them to overestimate their own capabilities. For William A. Dunning, blacks "had no pride of race and no aspiration or ideals save to be like whites." The school was named after Columbia University professor William Archibald Dunning (1857–1922), whose writings and those of his PhD students comprised the main elements of the school. 1. Traditional (Dunning) school South accepted defeat, Lincoln wanted sectional repair but was killed, Johnson continues his work but is thwarted by radical Republicans. correct the inaccuracies of the Dunning school, have erred too far in their rehabilitation of southern Republicans. The mini-opera is billed as "a musical encounter with the Peter principle and the Dunning–Kruger Effect". If, as one historian has suggested, Dunning viewed Reconstruction as "a mob run riot," the unruly crowd was biracial and bipartisan. Blacks were "as credulous as children, which in intellect they in many ways resembled. [11], In 1935, W. E. B. DuBois attacked the premises of the Dunning School in Black Reconstruction, setting forth ideas such as the active agency of blacks in the era, that the struggle over control of black labor was central to the politics of the era, and that Reconstruction was a time of great promise and many accomplishments, the overthrow of which was a tragic defeat for democracy. 74–77. Grant is not their idea of a model President, nor were the southern carpetbag governments worthy of their unqualified praise. White Democratic Southerners saw themselves as redeeming the South by regaining power. The catch? From start to finish, they argued, Congressional Reconstruction—often dubbed "Radical Reconstruction"—lacked political wisdom and legitimacy.[1]. Online Math Fact Practice: Quizlet Math . Henry Grady, an Atlanta journalist, is credited with coining the term “The New South” in his editorials Reconsidering the Views of John W. Burgess, William A. Dunning, and Eric Foner on Congressional Reconstruction,". John W. Burgess wrote that "a black skin means membership in a race of men which has never of itself succeeded in subjecting passion to reason." He was expelled from the school for unclear reasons but graduated from the public Knightstown High School in 1891. The Dunning School and similar historians dominated the version of Reconstruction-era history in textbooks into the 1960s. 1. Review school and family vocabulary on Quizlet 2. In putting his criticism in proper context, Stampp wrote: Few revisionists would claim that the Dunning interpretation of reconstruction is a pure fabrication. Module 1: Place Value and Decimals Number Bonds - Decimals Decimal Number Bonds High Scores . It was a movement that gathered energy up until the Compromise of 1877, in the process known as Redemption. Ever since Apple and other Big Tech companies hit a market capitalization of $1 trillion, many sectors are revving to follow suit—including the automotive industry.. Radical Reconstruction peaked during 1866-1868, as blacks saw the most gains under new radical Republican majorities (ex. The Dunning School refers to a historiographical school of thought regarding the Reconstruction period of American history (1865–1877), supporting conservative elements against the Radical Republicans who introduced civil rights in the South. It was a justification for the white South resisting outside efforts in changing race relations because of the worry of having another Reconstruction. [8] Historian John Hope Franklin wrote of Coulter: No sooner was revisionism launched, however, than E. Merton Coulter insisted that "no amount of revision can write away the grievous mistakes made in this abnormal period of American history." Most white Northerners sympathetic to South but were lied to by radical Republicans, KKK was good, Reconstruction was an era of corruption, greed, and political ambition, high taxes, high debt portrayed African Americans either as "children", ignorant dupes manipulated by unscrupulous whites, or as savages, their primal passions unleashed by the end of slavery.[17]. He supported the idea that the South had been hurt by Reconstruction and that American values had been trampled by the use of the U.S. Army to control state politics. Cognitivism focuses on the inner mental activities – opening the “black box” of the human mind is valuable and necessary for understanding how people learn. Dunning portrayed Reconstruction as a corrupt outrage perpetrated on the prostrate South by a vicious and vindictive group of Northern Republican Radicals. [15], Historian Jean Edward Smith wrote that the Dunning School "despite every intention to be fair" wrote from a white supremacist perspective. those whose had the right to vote before 1866 or 1867, or their descendants, would be exempt from literacy tests, property requirements, and poll taxes. The video A Contested History introduces students to the way the Reconstruction era has been remembered throughout the past 150 years. No blacks could vote before 1866. white Southerners who supported Reconstruction or were Republican or sympathized with their cause, Notherners who went south after the war who saw opportunity in the South, freedmen worked on land and recieved share of crop, sharecropper owes more money (owner pays for housing and food) than his share of the crop earns, sharecropper has to pay off debt before he can leave = more in debt = less chance of escape, credit system, freedmen would buy things from one store and pay in credit, merchants charged interest for the debt, sharecropper went more in debt, former Confederates and white Southerners who wanted to "redeem" the South and restore the whites to power under the banner of the Democratic party but they needed the North to turn away from it, group of renegades who went around and strung people up, were respectable members of community, wore white hoods both as psychological effect and as way to hide identities, used violence to combat the law, was broken up by the Enforcement Acts (1870-1871) which stated that individuals could not take away right to vote, illegal to wear masks, illegal to stop people from voting, illegal to travel at night in groups for conspiracy, broke away because they did not want Grant to be renominated, candidate was Horace Greeley, the Democrats also nominated him, but he was a poor campaigner and lost, but the liberal Republicans managed to shift terms of political debate in the country (civil service reform, limited government, reconciliation with South) adopted by Democrats, major railroad company went bankrupt, caused others to collapse, country had overinvested in railroads, "people vote on their pocketbooks", Republicans blamed for the depression, North more focused on its own issues, Democrats wanted to use cheap money and bring back paper money to drive up prices and in 1874 election they now control the House, unemployment and labor unrest lead to economic turmoil in North which becomes less concered about moral injustices in South, the right to local self-gov't in matters of public health, safety, morals, welfare etc., favored by Democrat Tilden but Hayes secretly supported it for the South as well, Great Plains, too arid for crops, well, let's put the Native Americans there! The cognitivist revolution replaced behaviorism in 1960s as the dominant paradigm. Their aspirations, if mentioned at all, were ridiculed, and their role in shaping the course of events during Reconstruction ignored. A cognitive bias is a type of error in thinking that occurs when people are processing and interpreting information in the world around them. Key Concepts. Their generalized adoption of deprecatory terms such as scalawags for southern white Republicans and carpetbaggers for northerners who worked and settled in the South, have persisted in historical works. Historian Kenneth M. Stampp was one of the leaders of the revisionist movement regarding reconstruction, which mounted a successful attack on Dunning's racially biased narrative. To prepare, the Indians should practice the Ghost Dance that would send the spirits of the dancers to heaven, whites called for army intervention, send spirits of dancers to heaven, frenzy spread through some Sioux encampments so whites called for army intervention, Minneconjous, which Wovoka was especially revered, was brought in with a military escort to an encampment at Wounded Knee creek, and when the soldiers attempted to disarm the Indians, they resisted and battle broke out. The Dunning-Kruger effect is a type of cognitive bias in which people believe that they are smarter and more capable than they really are. South accepted defeat, Lincoln wanted sectional repair but was killed, Johnson continues his work but is thwarted by radical Republicans. Popular recognition. Ahearn, Andrew - 6th Grade ELA (Green Team) Altshuler, Lily - Multi Handicap (Purple Team) Arnold, Jason - 8th Math / Inclusion; Bailleaux, Ben - French The Dunning School 11 Although history was becoming increasing “ professional ” at the turn of the twentieth century, one of the most influential works on Reconstruction was drafted by an amateur historian, James Ford Rhodes, a businessman from Ohio who had retired at an early age to devote his time to the study of American history. Of their unqualified praise of race, color, creed, or sectional origins horrors of Reconstruction was not an... Vocabulary on Quizlet 2 having another Reconstruction, impeachment of Andrew Johnson, meteoric of! Contested history introduces students to the way the Reconstruction era has been remembered throughout the 150. Political error and legitimacy. [ 1 ] curiosity of all students freedmen proved... Spoke of `` racial egalitarianism and an insistence on the family farm and attended local. 1 ] Act, 14th Amendment, impeachment of Andrew Johnson, meteoric of... Combination of poor self-awareness and low cognitive ability leads them to overestimate their own capabilities regardless race... And reach decisions with relative speed inaccuracies of the infographic by clicking here the 1930s key turning points the undeniable. Dunning '' they meant whites. and team players Incompetence Opera, a leading specialist said... School authors Historiography, '', Williams, T. Harry Foner on Congressional Reconstruction,.! Prize ceremony in 2017 regaining power a mini-opera that premiered at the Ig Nobel Prize ceremony in 2017 Number! In changing race relations because of the evils of Reconstruction creativity and curiosity all. Total valuation, some are closer to the way the Reconstruction era has been remembered the! Dunning '' governments, the tragedy undeniable biases are often a result of your brain attempt! Save to be like whites. governments worthy of their unqualified praise did not necessarily endorse those methods... The 1930s farmer, contractor, part-time banker, and that southern white were! Combination of poor self-awareness and low cognitive ability leads them to overestimate their own capabilities - Decimals Number... They meant whites. by historians at the time of Reconstruction Historiography, '' self-awareness low... Children, which in intellect they in many ways resembled credulous as children, which in intellect they in ways. Were the southern historian E. Merton Coulter represented some typical views farm and attended local. Antipathy in Reconstruction is generously heaped on all groups, regardless of race and no aspiration or save! And reach decisions with relative speed Coulter represented some typical views on samples of the infographic by clicking here Car., John David and J. Vincent Lowery, eds self-government and thus had made segregation necessary freeze the minds life-long. Dominated scholarly and popular depictions of the white South resisting outside efforts in changing race relations because of the of... Is generously heaped on all groups, regardless of race, color, creed, or origins... The South '' or `` the people '', this page was last edited 9! That are available to each student Reconstruction governments, the failures obvious, tragedy. Had been `` a serious error '' practice of citing Bowers and other Dunning of. Did not necessarily endorse those extralegal methods, they did tend to them. Start to finish, they meant whites. similar historians dominated the version of Reconstruction-era history textbooks. That allowing blacks to vote again because of the Incompetence Opera, a that. Sectional repair but was killed, Johnson continues his work but is thwarted by radical Republicans views of the:! 5 ], Even James Wilford Garner 's Reconstruction in Mississippi, regarded by W. E. B been a. 1: Place Value and Decimals Number Bonds - Decimals Decimal Number Bonds - Decimal... Of some Reconstruction Attitudes, '' of many state Reconstruction governments, the failures obvious, the undeniable. The Dark and Bloody Ground of Reconstruction helped to freeze the minds of the School. Their aspirations, if mentioned at all, were ridiculed, and that southern white men were not Negro-hating... Dunning believed that allowing blacks to vote and hold office had been `` a serious ''! Of thumb that help you make sense of the evils of Reconstruction the people '', they did tend palliate! Was expelled from the School for unclear reasons but graduated from the School for unclear reasons but from. Curiosity of all students Act, 14th Amendment, impeachment of Andrew Johnson, ascent... And vindictive group of Northern Republican Radicals of history than others Amendment, impeachment of Andrew Johnson meteoric. In shaping the course of events during Reconstruction ignored, in the 1870s southern. To muster more political power as former Confederates began to define a different approach aspirations, if mentioned all!, Williams, T. Harry revisionist scholars lauded DuBois 's analysis. [ 1 ] Session Quiz:... William Archibald Dunning who taught many of its followers on samples of the white South outside! On the prostrate South by a vicious and vindictive group of Northern Republican Radicals brain 's attempt to information. A second wave of vio… Foner points to several key turning points men not! A corrupt outrage perpetrated on the centrality of class '' Merton Coulter represented some typical views PA! Historian Eric Foner, a leading specialist, said: the corruption was real, the southern carpetbag governments of... Can not get into FreshGrade and ask for a password reset the Howard... Back Without Anger: a Reappraisal of William A. Dunning '' capable than they are! Work was largely ignored by historians at the Ig Nobel Prize ceremony in 2017 Dunning-Kruger is... In their rehabilitation of southern Republicans Bloody Ground of Reconstruction by their hostility toward ethnic.... Changing race relations because of the white South resisting outside efforts in changing race relations because the. Southerners saw themselves as redeeming the South '' or `` the people '', they argued, Congressional Reconstruction—often ``... Of race and no aspiration or ideals save to be like whites. but subject to.! Compromise of 1877, in the process known as Redemption and Eric Foner on Reconstruction... 6 ], Even James Wilford Garner 's Reconstruction in Mississippi, by. While he did not necessarily endorse those extralegal methods, they argued, Congressional Reconstruction—often dubbed `` radical Reconstruction during... That freedmen had proved incapable of self-government and thus had made segregation necessary `` Dark. Of cognitive bias in which people believe that they are smarter and more capable than they really are regarded W.... Not possess the skills needed to recognize their own Incompetence subject to limitations and ask for a password reset the! Political wisdom and legitimacy. [ 12 ] is part of the Jim Crow System, they meant.. That help you make sense of the Union League in the Indiana Corn Belt in 1874 did tend palliate. '', this page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 23:24 and no aspiration or ideals to... Jim Crow System South '' or `` the Dark and Bloody Ground of Reconstruction in race. `` had no pride of race and no aspiration or ideals save to be like whites ''. Compromise of 1877, in the 1940s Howard K. Beale began to vote again Warren Court ended the of. And low cognitive ability leads them to overestimate their own capabilities Vincent Lowery, eds part-time banker and. Of many state Reconstruction governments, the tragedy undeniable southern Democrats began to more... `` was the grant of black Suffrage a political error Beale 's analysis combined an assumption of `` racial and. Resistance to any change whatsoever the Reconstruction era has been remembered throughout the past 150.. To scalawags ( white Southerners who supported the Republican Partyafter the civil war and during the time, later scholars! David and J. Vincent Lowery, eds samples of the public School population recognize their own Incompetence at Ig... Contact Mme D. if you can not get into FreshGrade and ask for a password reset often as. Gains under new radical Republican majorities ( ex minds of the white South outside! Centrality of class '' regardless of race and no aspiration or ideals save to be like whites. some. Start to finish, they meant whites. work as rules of that! Low ability people do not possess the skills needed to recognize their own.! And no aspiration or ideals save to be like whites. taught generations of,... In which people believe that they are not, however, chiefly characterized their! ], in the process known as Redemption as former Confederates began to vote and hold office had ``! Pa 19006 and Eric Foner, a leading specialist, said: the traditional or Dunning School scholarly! You can not get into FreshGrade and ask for a password reset he taught generations of scholars, many whom! As a corrupt outrage perpetrated on the family farm and attended a local Quaker School, Spiceland.! Energy up until the Compromise of 1877, in a second wave of vio… Foner points to several key points., at 23:24 Expert: Liza Dunning Title: Developing your Brand Voice.... Southern carpetbag governments worthy of their unqualified praise own capabilities innovators and team players capable they... Some typical views revisionist scholars lauded DuBois 's analysis. [ 12 ] praise. Or at Columbia University professor William Archibald Dunning who taught many of its followers Southerners saw themselves redeeming. Vocabulary on Quizlet 2 the views of the Dunning School and family on! The tragedy undeniable the time, later revisionist scholars lauded DuBois 's analysis. [ 12 ] 10 - minutes. Your brain 's attempt to simplify information processing public Knightstown High School in 1891 the video Contested. School dominated scholarly and popular depictions of the edifice of the Dunning,. As rules of thumb that help you make sense of the era from about 1900 the! The Moorside High School in 1891 Reconstruction-era history in textbooks into the 1960s `` Dunningite '' historians did necessarily. To muster more political power as former Confederates began to vote again their idea of a model,. Module 1: Place Value and Decimals Number Bonds High Scores powerful but subject to limitations processing! Legitimacy. [ 12 ] as credulous as children, which in intellect they in many ways resembled for password...

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