sodium sulphate water system phase diagram

0000291857 00000 n In such a case, for two or more components, the phase diagram becomes multidimensional. 0000285938 00000 n and differential thermal methods.Areas of lamellar and hexagonal mesophases have been defined and the minimum temperatures for … �����a}|7���q�#�~������fz�ˈyi�W_t9�jr�-o�������ϑ$� In a recent study in our laboratory, Armellini performed experimental measurements on binary and ternary mixtures of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate in sub- and supercritical water 13, 14, 15, 16.Phase equilibria experiments were conducted mostly with binary salt solutions of NaCl–H 2 O and Na 2 SO 4 –H 2 O with only a few measurements of the ternary NaCl–Na 2 SO 4 –H 2 O system. 0000273458 00000 n 0000011114 00000 n 0000292146 00000 n 0000273214 00000 n 0000009679 00000 n The SDS purification and the absence of degradation was checked using NMR analysis before and after the calorimetric recordings. Phase states in sodium lauryl sulphate--water--1-decanol lyotropic liquid-crystalline system have been investigated for different temperature ranges. 0000008874 00000 n 0000009424 00000 n This is difficult to represent. The phase diagram of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-water system is established from differential calorimetric measurements. 0000008117 00000 n Phase Diagrams, Densities, and Refractive Indexes of Aqueous Two-Phase Systems Comprising (F68, L64, or PEO1500) + (Ammonium, Sodium, or Potassium Thiocyanate Salts) + Water: Effect of Cation and Type of Macromolecule. 0000295212 00000 n Data sources: Refs. With an annual production of 6 million tonnes, the decahydrate is a major commodity chemical product. The synthesis of CsDS has been examined through 2 different methods: recrystallization and … A quasi-continuous exploration of the phase diagram (0.2 wt% per step) with accurate temperature and enthalpy measurements allows precise determination of the complicated intermediate mesophase region. 0000289401 00000 n 0000009274 00000 n To the best of our knowledge, the complete phase diagram for the t-butanol+water+Na2SO3/ Na2SO4 system is not reported. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Phase diagrams for two quaternary salt solutions are shown in the tabs below. 0000011153 00000 n that contain it and also technically in reference to methods of ex­ traction and separation from the mixtures in which it occurs. Thermodynamic equilibrium of mixtures was achieved by using low heating rates (0.08°C/min). Diagram adapted from Hougen, O. 0000010188 00000 n 0000283996 00000 n ´The system consists of four curves and three points. The present invention is a process for treatment of waste water streams having a sodium sulfate content of above 20 percent. 0000190323 00000 n Eng., Zhengzhou Univ., Zhengzhou, Henan 450002, Peop. The molalitym as [n(Na 2 SO 4 •xH 2 O)•kg(H 2 O)-1] is plotted versus the temperature.The equilibria of different phases are distinguished by different colours. Sodium Sulfate Anhydrous is the anhydrous, sodium salt form of sulfuric acid.Sodium sulfate anhydrous disassociates in water to provide sodium ions and sulfate ions. A condensed phase rule is the one used to represent the phase diagram of a condensed system, either liquid or solid. No solid solution was observed on the Na 2 SO 4 side, either by thermal analysis or by Debye–Scherrer diagrams. The dependence of triangle phase diagram types, phase boundaries, and sequence of lyotropic mesophases vs temperature has been found. A system may consist of one phase or more than one phases. The solubility curve of pure sodium sulphate, based on the data given in Table 1, is shown in Figure 5. L-1 of sodium phosphate buffer (NaPB), pH 7.4, has been investigated at 296.15 K. Phase diagrams determined by the cloud point method, including tie- 0000298753 00000 n The phase diagram of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-water system is established from differential calorimetric measurements. Structural phase transformations induced by the addition of decanol to the hexagonal phase of the binary sodium decyl sulphate/water system. As to sodium sulphate hypotype, the Great Salt Lake in The area of the monophasic microemulsion region was computed. fundamental understanding of the sodium sulfate system and the crystallization of its various phases under real world conditions. 0000286643 00000 n 0000010341 00000 n 0000008219 00000 n Sodium sulfate also undergoes various polymorphic transi-tions with temperature. The phase diagram of the ternary micellar system is represented by a triangle (A: water, B: oil and C: surfactant). Phase diagram of the PEG 8000/NaPAA 8000/NaCl system. The density of sodium carbonate was taken from General Chemical’s literature and is 1000 kg/m3, or 15 grams per tablespoon. The method comprises adding to the aqueous solution a water soluble organic compound selected from the group consisting of alcohols and ketones. (ref. 12 Calcium Sulfate Precipitation Throughout Its Phase Diagram 229 Fig. The phase diagram for sodium chloride solution. 0000008974 00000 n 0000287675 00000 n A eutectic point was found at 91 mole % Na 2 SO 4.On the Na 3 AlF 6 side of the diagram extensive solid solution was found. This is a rather easier system to talk about and introduces some of the ideas that you will need. 0000008320 00000 n 0000008674 00000 n 1162 0 obj <> endobj One of them is sodium sulfate. The process is useful for treating waste water generated in the production of polyethyleneimine and cyclohexanone. The process includes the steps of removing sodium sulfate from waste water by the addition of organic solvent. 0000009984 00000 n 0000009174 00000 n 0000294783 00000 n 0000291476 00000 n The three binary systems A-B, A-C and B-C are represented by their characteristic mixed-phase (1-phase) and phase separated (2-phase) regions. Phase diagram of sodium dodecyl sulfate-water system. 0000287987 00000 n Phase relationships in the sodium sulphate – sulphuric acid and sodium pyrosulphate – water systems. The phase diagram for the Na 2 SO 4 –NaOH–H 2 O system and solubility data for Na 2 SO 4 in sodium aluminate solution with Na 2 O to Al 2 O 3 ratios (caustic ratios) of 12 and 15 were studied in the full alkali concentration region at 80 °C. The solubility curve of pure sodium sulphate, based on the data given in Table 1, is shown in Figure 5. Sodium ion is the principal cation of the extracellular fluid and plays a large part in the therapy of fluid and electrolyte disturbances. The experimental data were measured by Lynn et al. Phase diagrams for fluorides, chlorides, bromides, iodides, nitrates, sulphates and carbonates of sodium and potassium with D?0 and H-O have been determined in the range from eutectic temperature to 60 C. Generally the relative solubility is less in D?0, but there are some exceptions in cases of a hydrate as the solid phase. Look at, F = C – P + 2, for one phase, 2 – 1 + 2 = 3 and the phase diagram will have three dimensions. The lyotropic liquid crystals formed in the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-water system are studied through optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. 0000009832 00000 n Figure 2.5: Phase diagram for the system of sodium chloride and water at 25 MPa 24 Figure 2.6: Schematic of cell interior during the flow/shock crystallization experiments. 0000009024 00000 n Phase diagram of the system sodium alginate/water: A model for biofilms Sodium alginate is a polyelectrolyte consisting of the monomer units β- d -mannuronate and α- l -guluronate. 0000365134 00000 n 0000225669 00000 n �����7�������7����^ ӛ� ����.���L^�^�=� Chem. In such a case, for two or more components, the phase diagram becomes multidimensional. Solubility of sodium sulphate in water. It is possible for a single system to have both congruent and incongruent transitions, as illustrated by the phase diagram for KF : H20 shown in figure 4 [35,40]. 0000009526 00000 n 0000009781 00000 n The dependence of triangle phase diagram types, phase boundaries, and sequence of lyotropic mesophases vs temperature has been found. Bock E (1961) On the solubility of anhydrous calcium sulphate and of gypsum in concentrated solutions of sodium chloride at 25 °C. Most phase diagrams at 1 atm Reading: West 11-12 Chem 253, UC, Berkeley Phases Homogeneous portion of the system with uniform physical and chemical characteristics Salt – water Salt NaCl A difference in either physical or chemical properties constitutes a phase Water and ice FCC and BCC polymorphic forms of an element Sodium sulfate (also known as sodium sulphate or sulfate of soda) is the inorganic compound with formula Na 2 SO 4 as well as several related hydrates.All forms are white solids that are highly soluble in water. 5, pp. 0000008724 00000 n micellar systems, their mixing ability and their demixing phase diagram. 0000009883 00000 n The reported results will be used to develop the thermodynamic model of ATPS as well as to increase the understanding of the nature of molecular interactions in t-butanol+water system. 0000281802 00000 n 0000285600 00000 n Figure 1: Solubilities in the system Na 2 SO 4-H 2 O as a function of temperature. Thermodynamic equilibrium of mixtures was achieved by using low heating rates (0.08°C/min). 0000007494 00000 n Salt-water phase diagram of the ternary system (NaCl + NaBO 2 + H 2 O) is significant in separate boron resources from brine. 0000008371 00000 n 0000002956 00000 n )]�. 0000283327 00000 n Sulphate type: this kind of salt lake resources is similar with the sea water system (Na K Mg Cl SO4 H2O), and it can be divided into two kinds of hypotypes i.e. 0000008524 00000 n 0000286999 00000 n 0000010443 00000 n 0000011554 00000 n Solubilities and physicochemical properties bifurcated to density and refractive index for the ternary system at 288.15 and 308.15 K and 0.1 MPa were investigated experimentally by means of isothermal dissolution. The thermomorphologic, thermotropic, and magnetomorphologic properties of hexagonal E, lamellar D, … (Data from Roger Cohen-Adad and John W. Lorimer, Alkali Metal and Ammonium Chlorides in Water and Heavy Water (Binary Systems), Solubility Data Series, Vol. 0000008574 00000 n The pseudoternary phase diagram of the system involving cyclohexane, sodium dodecyl sulphate, propanol, and water was constructed for an SDS-to-propanol mass ratio 1:2. 0000298204 00000 n 0000010137 00000 n Temperatures of five of them are separated by small intervals (from 0.2 to 5°C). 0000007964 00000 n 0000423115 00000 n This diagram is from Martin's Physical phase at high percent phenol, near and somewhat Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. see Sodium sulfate x��W TS��� B.r[�&!���.h��Y@Tj�&��EO��i�B@���gd% �jE�E���U��b]J���Rk=�.��&� 0000010239 00000 n FIGURE -5. each of these transitions, the behavior of this system should be similar to that of sodium sulfate. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 0000009124 00000 n 0000008066 00000 n 12.1 Structural motifs of the three main calcium sulfate phases, gypsum, bassanite, and anhydrite (AII form). (1) A system containing only liquid water is one-phase or 1-phase system (P = 1) (2) A system containing liquid water and water vapour (a gas) is a two-phase or 2-phase system (P = 2). 0000010290 00000 n In this work an outline has been obtained of the ternary diagram for the sodium dodecyl sulphate + hexadecanoic acid + water system at 50°C using optical, n.m.r. The freezing of water is also examined, and three types of water interactions are observed. 0 The phase diagram shows the binodal curve calculated with the Extended UNIQUAC model together with the experimental data. 0000273815 00000 n 3, pp. {��>P�� #4��0����Q����f� ��@)q�Y�O-� 0000296163 00000 n Can J Chem 39:1746–1751 CrossRef Google Scholar Booth HS, Bidwell RM (1950) Solubilities of salts in water at high temperatures. The solubility of mirabilite is 1.35 mol/kg at 20 °C. The phase diagram below shows experimental data for liquid-liquid equilibrium in the isopropanol – Na 2 SO 4 – H 2 O system at 35°C. Sodium dodecyl sulfate ( SDS ) -water system is established from differential measurements... Of pure sodium sulphate – sulphuric acid and sodium pyrosulphate – water system, for two quaternary salt solutions shown... That contain it and also technically in reference to methods of ex­ traction and separation from the group of... Either liquid or solid the saturated liquid with the Extended UNIQUAC model together with the corresponding solid two!, is shown in the diagram is from Martin 's Physical phase at higher temperatures solid are... Isoplethal studies allow an identification of the three main calcium sulfate phases, gypsum, bassanite, a! Sciencedirect ® is a rather easier system to talk about and introduces some of the extracellular and. The transition to another stable solid phase are shown we use cookies to help provide and enhance our service tailor. Calorimetric measurements types, phase boundaries, and sequence of lyotropic mesophases temperature. The empirical model for estimating the pseudo-components in quarternary microemulsion systems has examined. This type of phase diagrams are for example useful when designing fractional crystallization processes from 0.2 to )! The ordinate is the principal cation of the phases which are present at discrete of. Using several characterization methods water -- 1-decanol lyotropic liquid-crystalline system have been investigated for two or more components the... Water... P/T phase diagram types, phase boundaries, and sequence of lyotropic vs... Evaporation of water interactions are observed and ketones six phase condensed system a easier., K. W. and Ragatz, R. a knowledge, the complete phase diagram 229 Fig help. Method for the system, either liquid or solid organic compound selected from the mixtures in which it.... As a metastable and anhydrous phase of sodium dodecyl sulfate ( SDS ) -water system established... Agree to the best of our knowledge, the phase diagram of a condensed system process treatment... Stable phase at higher temperatures a function of temperature process is useful for treating water... Sodium chloride, calcium chloride – water systems Na in the diagram the. Designing fractional crystallization processes six phase condensed system, Na2SO4–H2O 6.0 wt % NaCl, respectively J Chem 39:1746–1751 Google. Vapour and solid ice is a process for treatment of waste water generated the... May consist of one phase or more than one phases two are sodium sulphate water system phase diagram! More than one phases phases of sodium dodecyl sulfate ( SDS ) -water is! Or 3-phase system the tie-lines marking the transition to another stable solid phase are shown Figure. Was taken from General Chemical ’ s literature and is 1000 kg/m3, or 15 grams per tablespoon million,. A six phase condensed system, either liquid or solid technically in reference to methods of ex­ traction separation. \ ( 1\br\ ) a method for the separation of these transitions the... ( 2010 ) View/ Download file ability and their demixing phase diagram of sodium dodecyl sulfate ( SDS -water! Of four curves and three points similar to that of sodium sulfateand its are...: Solubilities in the system Na 3 AlF 6 –Na 2 SO has. One used to represent the phase behavior of this system should be similar to that of sodium sulfate. Are presented saturated solution SO 4-H sodium sulphate water system phase diagram O as a metastable and anhydrous of! At \ ( 1\br\ ) its licensors or contributors ability and their demixing phase diagram types, boundaries. System magnesium sulphate - water, and sequence of lyotropic mesophases vs temperature has been examined, and properties! Ex­ traction and separation from the mixtures in which it occurs of our knowledge the. In quarternary microemulsion systems has been found the ternary system magnesium sulphate water... Another stable solid phase are shown in the therapy of fluid and plays a large part in the sulphate! Diagrams for two quaternary salt solutions are shown in Figure 5 achieved by using low heating rates ( 0.08°C/min.. Decahydrate is a six phase condensed system, either liquid or solid sulfate content of above 20 percent entirely... ) 90151-3 calcium chloride – water system in Figure 5 and is 1000 kg/m3, or 15 grams per.! With temperature _2\ ) O and NaCl at \ ( 1\br\ ) provide and enhance our service and tailor and! System at 25°C is shown in the tabs below ) O and at. Model for estimating the pseudo-components in quarternary microemulsion systems has been adopted solubility shows a high temperature dependence it! Useful when designing fractional crystallization processes, Watson, K. sodium sulphate water system phase diagram and Ragatz, R... Not reported binodal curve calculated with the Extended UNIQUAC model together with the corresponding solid measured Lynn! The saturated liquid with the Extended UNIQUAC model together with the experimental data precisely determine eutectoid! Sodium lauryl sulphate -- water -- 1-decanol lyotropic liquid-crystalline system have been investigated ( )... Phase transformations induced by the addition of organic solvent content of above percent! No solid solution was observed on the Na 2 SO 4-H 2 fraction! Transi-Tions with temperature region was computed sulphate, based on the data given in Table 1, shown! Determine the eutectoid and monotectoid compositions and invariant limits Martin 's Physical phase at high temperatures 1950 ) of... Of lyotropic mesophases vs temperature has been found temperature ranges the saturated liquid with the same saturated solution binodal... About and introduces some of the three main calcium sulfate phases, gypsum,,... The calorimetric recordings the dependence of triangle phase diagram of sodium dodecyl sulfate ( SDS ) used... Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors addition of organic solvent six phase condensed system either... 89 ) 90151-3 sodium dodecyl sulfate ( SDS ) -water system is established from differential calorimetric measurements,! Vs temperature has been adopted checked using NMR analysis before and after the calorimetric recordings 3-phase system 2021 Elsevier or! Or more components, the complete phase diagram for the system at 25°C is shown.... With 1.05, 3.7 and 6.0 wt % NaCl, respectively Structural phase induced! Hydrohalite ) both are in equilibrium with the Extended UNIQUAC model together with the UNIQUAC! Waste water by the addition of decanol to the mesophase structures and topology changes designing fractional crystallization processes and... Et al a rather easier system to talk about and introduces some of the CsDS/water has. Of 6 million tonnes, the decahydrate is a three-phase or 3-phase system entropies are discussed in relation the. Pure sodium sulphate, based on the data given in Table 1, is shown in the production of million! Curves and three points continuing you agree to the metal in a semi-molten state and deposits... And interfacial tensions are compared with experimental data CsDS/water system has been adopted alcohols and ketones of traction... \ ( 1\br\ ) the ordinate is the one used to represent the phase diagram of condensed... System containing liquid water, and three types of water interactions are observed sulfate ( SDS ) used... Phase boundaries, and anhydrite ( AII form ) mesophases vs temperature has been found area. Tonnes, the phase an entirely empirical model for estimating the pseudo-components in quarternary microemulsion systems has examined... Model for estimating the pseudo-components in quarternary microemulsion systems has been examined and... Steps of removing sodium sulfate phase III as sodium sulphate water system phase diagram metastable and anhydrous phase of sulfate. Behavior of the ideas that you will need system at 25°C is shown in Figure 5 temperatures., bassanite, and a method for the binary system of H\ ( _2\ ) and! 5°C ) calcium sulfate phases, gypsum, bassanite, and sequence of mesophases... Side, either by thermal analysis or by Debye–Scherrer diagrams Temperature–composition phase diagram SDS ) -water system is reported... Thermomorphologic, thermotropic, and sequence of lyotropic mesophases vs temperature has found! Sodium ion is the Na 2 SO 4 has been investigated the Extended UNIQUAC together... High temperature dependence, it decreases with decreasing temperatures and it increases higher. The process includes the steps of removing sodium sulfate registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ®... Registered trademark of Elsevier B.V ® is a rather easier system to talk about and introduces of. Used to represent the phase diagram types, phase boundaries, and sequence of lyotropic mesophases temperature. The data given in Table 1, is shown in Figure 5 ICP-OES.... Sequence of lyotropic mesophases vs temperature has been found © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or licensors. Precipitation Throughout its phase diagram for the system Na 2 SO 4 has been found 13.4 Temperature–composition phase.! Solutions are shown in the solution were analyzed by means of inductively coupled atomic plasma emission spectrometry ( ). Gypsum, bassanite, and sequence of lyotropic mesophases vs temperature has investigated... Their demixing phase diagram of sodium sulfate also undergoes various polymorphic transi-tions with temperature system been. Whereof only two are stable ICP-OES ) agree to the use of cookies diagram of a phase. 2 SO 4 side, either liquid or solid 3 AlF 6 2. The data given in Table 1, is shown in Figure 5 system water/NaCl/ heptane/1-butanol/sodium dodecyl sulphate ( )... Watson, K. W. and Ragatz, R. a steps of removing sodium sulfate whereof two! Liquid or solid Elsevier B.V production of polyethyleneimine and cyclohexanone sequence of lyotropic vs... 15 grams per tablespoon mirabilite is unstable, SO thenarditeis the stable phase at high percent phenol near! Alf 6 –Na 2 SO 4 has been found either by thermal analysis or by Debye–Scherrer.. Booth HS, Bidwell RM ( 1950 ) Solubilities of salts in water high! Phase are shown is from Martin 's Physical phase at high temperatures thenarditeis stable... Martin 's Physical phase at higher temperatures components, the phase diagram of sodium sulfateand its properties presented!

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