On tsunami sediment transport modeling and uncertainties津波土砂移動数値解析の不確実性と地形復元について. To open auxiliary materials in a browser, click on the label. On the other hand, large surface subsidence of as much as 2 m is found widely on land in a narrow belt zone extending from Shizuoka to the westernmost end of Shikoku. YouTube. Comm.  by modifying the structure of the subfault segments off Shikoku based on the findings of a number of recent geodetic and geological investigations of the Nankai Trough. Japan has had two earthquakes with staggering death tolls of more than 100,000 people.  Of the series of repeating megathrust earthquakes in the Nankai Trough that recur every 100 to 150 years, the Hoei earthquake is considered to be the most damaging, with its linkage of Tokai, Tonankai and the Nankai earthquakes, and fault ruptures extending from Suruga Bay to the westernmost end of Shikoku, about 600 km in length [An'naka et al., 2003]. B2 (Coastal Engineering).  Snapshots of tsunami propagation obtained from the simulation of the Hoei earthquake are illustrated in Figure 4 at time T = 1, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 min from the time the earthquake started in Animation S1. Le soulèvement au cap Muroto, dans la préfecture de Kōchi, a été estimé à 2,3 m pour 1707, contre 1,5 m pour 1854.  at the Hyuga‐nada seashore in Kyushu, is not in a location typical of other tsunami lakes in Shikoku and Honshu where large ground subsidence is considered to have occurred during Nankai Trough earthquakes. Difference between Tidal Wave and Tsunami (CSS-2018) This area roughly corresponds to the N3 and N4 segments of An'naka et al. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. The existence of the tsunami lakes in Kyushu was not well explained by the expected ground deformation pattern produced by the former Hoei earthquake source model where the fault rupture stopped at the westernmost end of Shikoku, not extending to Hyuga‐nada. This implies that the source rupture area of the Nankai subfault segments might not stop at the westernmost end of Shikoku as most source models assume [Ando, 1975; Aida, 1981; An'naka et al., 2003], but may extend further, to Hyuga‐nada. Real-Time Tsunami Prediction System Using DONET. In Figure 4a (T = 1 min) the development of tsunami above the Hoei earthquake source segment (N1–4) is very striking, with an uplift of the sea surface of approximately 3 m over the Nankai Trough. The 1605 Nankai earthquake occurred at about 20:00 local time on 3 February. The bottom four plots show the distribution of maximum tsunami height calculated using the simulation of the Hoei earthquake by, Pattern of average vertical movements of uplift (red) and subsidence (blue) derived using the GEONET GPS data from August 1999 to August 2009 are illustrated by blue‐red color scale. A total of nearly 30,000 buildings were damaged in the affected regions and about 30,000 people were killed. A total of nearly 30,000 buildings were damaged in the affected regions and about 30,000 people were killed. An observation of repeatable slow slip events associated with deep tremor activity around the Bungo Channel noted by Hirose and Obara  may mean that accumulation of strain energy above the plate boundary is not as strong as would be expected based only on the large plate coupling rate deduced from the GEONET data analysis. The maximum water depth of the lake is approximately 3 m in the center, and a narrow channel or waterway southwest of the lake connects it to the sea. Imaging of the subducted Kyushu-Palau Ridge in the Hyuga-nada region, western Nankai Trough subduction zone. The death toll associated with this event is uncertain, but between 5,000 and 41,000 casualties were reported. and Chemical Oceanography, Physical (a) New Hoei earthquake model with fault segments N1 to N5′ and (b) former Hoei model [after, Maximum tsunami height along the Pacific coast of Japan. 1707 Hōei Nankai Trough tsunami in the Bungo Channel, southwestern Japan. Figure 11c (T = 24 min) shows the seawater gradually inundating the lake through the channel on the right‐hand side of the lake. Sagiya and Thatcher  also obtained similar source rupture pattern using the geodetic data. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface. These studies endeavor to clarify the tsunami history of the historical and prehistorical Nankai Trough earthquakes [e.g., Tsukuda et al., 1999; Okamura et al., 1997, 2000, 2003, 2004; Tsuji et al., 1998, 2002; Nanayama and Shigeno, 2004; Komatsubara and Fujiwara, 2007; Matsuoka and Okamura, 2009].  However, the recent discovery of the tsunami lakes in Kyushu (Ryujin Lake) with their thick cover of tsunami‐induced deposits caused by the Hoei earthquake has overturned our understanding. La magnitude du séisme de 1707 a été supérieure à celle des deux séismes conjoints qui se sont produits à Ansei-Tōkai en 1854, dont l'estimation est basée sur plusieurs observations. The Hoei earthquake was a larger event in which rupture spread as far as Hyuga‐nada, incorporating the fifth subfault, N5. Of the series Nankai Trough M8 earthquakes that recur approximately every 100 to 150 years, the Hoei earthquake is considered to be the largest shock.  The source model of the Hoei earthquake deduced by An'naka et al.  Ten years of data from the nationwide GEONET GPS network illustrates the current pattern of ground deformation (Figure 6).  The source model for the Hoei earthquake deduced by Ando , Aida , and An'naka et al. Nankaido japan 28 october 1707 a magnitude 84. 2nd ser.). Nov 20, 1755. At this Tsunami on 08/29/1741 a total of 1,607 people have been killed. Its total length is approximately 800 km. Possible slip history scenarios for the Hyuga‐nada region and Bungo Channel and their relationship with Nankai earthquakes in southwest Japan based on numerical simulations. Ando  deduced the source model of the Hoei earthquake using various data sets, including the vertical movements of ground surface associated with the earthquake [Kawasumi, 1950], the distribution pattern of seismic intensities [Omori, 1913], and comparisons between these phenomena and measurements from the recent 1944 Tonankai and 1946 Tokai earthquakes. Such earthquakes with very slow rupture speeds may not produce strong ground motions or large shaking intensity to feel peoples. The 11 March 2011 Tohoku Tsunami Survey in Rikuzentakata and Comparison with Historical Events. Real-Time GNSS Analysis System REGARD: An Overview and Recent Results. A systematic review of geological evidence for Holocene earthquakes and tsunamis along the Nankai-Suruga Trough, Japan.  An inferred property of the present crustal deformation pattern illustrated by the GEONET GPS measurements and a number of studies on interplate coupling along the Nankai Trough subduction zone based on the GPS data [Hashimoto et al., 2009; Ichitani et al., 2010; Nishimura et al., 1999] indicate that Hyuga‐nada may also be in the area of the Nankai Trough earthquake nucleation zone.  If we assume that gentle ground upheaval has continued in the area around Ryujin Lake at a rate of roughly 2 mm/yr until now, the change in ground elevation is estimated to be 60 cm in the past 300 years since the Hoei earthquake in 1707. Thus, further supporting evidence is needed to develop a reliable and detailed source rupture history for the Hoei earthquake. Our newly simulated tsunami height of approximately 6 m at Ryujin Lake also confirms the interpretation of Okamura et al. Osaka was also damaged. We worked to match the ground deformation pattern due to the Hoei earthquake and the present ground deformation field shown by the GEONET data, assuming that the significant ground deformation associated with the Hoei earthquake is still influencing the present deformation field. of the Earthquake Invest.  The results of the tsunami inundation simulation for the new Hoei earthquake model are shown in Animation S3 and in Figure 11 as a sequence of snapshots of the water surface of the Ryujin Lake after T = 14, 19, 24, 29, 34, and 39 min from the start of the earthquake, illustrating the way in which a tsunami with a large flux can inundate Ryujin Lake. The Hyuga-nada Earthquake on June 30th, 1498 is a Fake Earthquake. The tsunami lakes distributed along the Nankai Trough shoreline lie along a larger zone that subsides during the Nankai Trough earthquakes have developed and preserved in such way. The worst tsunamis, by number of fatalities by Location, Year and the No. A Method to Determine the Level 1 and Level 2 Tsunami Inundation Areas for Reconstruction in Eastern Japan and Possible Application in Pre-disaster Areas. Le chevauchement de Nankai est subdivisé en cinq blocs, nommés de A à E, qui peuvent se rompre indépendamment les uns des autres,. Dynamic rupture scenarios of anticipated Nankai‐Tonankai earthquakes, southwest Japan, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, http://www.jamstec.go.jp/esc/projects/fy2009/12-hashi.html, Animation S1. We used a nested mesh model that connects gradually 30 m, 90 m, and 270 m mesh model to allow efficient simulation of the tsunami in heterogeneous bathymetry (Figure 3). It was reported that roughly a dozen large waves were counted between 3 pm and 4 pm, s… Circles denote observed maximum tsunami inundation or runup heights during the Hoei earthquake [. Learn about our remote access options, Center for Integrated Disaster Information Research, Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. The 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami — Three years on.  consists of four fault segments (N1 to N4), which extend from Suruga Bay to the westernmost end of Shikoku, a total length of 605 km. When: 28th October, 1707 Where: Japan Death Toll: About 30,000. Il pourrait par ailleurs être la cause de la dernière éruption du mont Fuji, qui s'est produite 49 jours plus tard. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Geophysics, Biological Propagation of tsunami from Kii Peninsula to Kyushu for new Hoei earthquake source model with N1 to N5′ subfault segments. Also we slightly modified the length of the N4 subfault segment in the direction parallel to the trench axis in order to improve the fitness between synthesized and observed ground deformation pattern reported by Kawasumi . Imaging Shear Strength Along Subduction Faults. Dans chacun de ces cas, c'est le bloc nord-est qui a rompu avant le bloc sud-ouest. The contrast of larger tsunami relative to weaker ground shaking raises the potential for a significant tsunami disaster similar to that of the tsunami earthquakes [e.g., Kanamori, 1972; Satake and Tanioka, 1999]. It had a magnitude estimated at 8.6 Ms and triggered a large tsunami. Thus, the effect of adding the N5′ subfault is only a very minor amplification of the tsunami along the coast from east of Shikoku to Honshu, confirmed by comparing snapshots of Figures 8a and 8b in later time frames (T = 15 and 30 min). Finite-Difference Simulation of Long-Period Ground Motion for the Nankai Trough Megathrust Earthquakes. Japan: Chūbu region, Kansai region, Shikoku, Kyūshū: Tsunami: yes: Casualties >5,000: The 1707 Hōei earthquake happened at 14:00 local time on 28 October 1707.  Actually, the source model of An'naka et al. of Deaths, as follows: On the other hand, the radiation of the tsunami from the N5′ subfault is very weak in the direction parallel to the trench axis (i.e., southwest to northeast). The source rupture is assumed to start in the Kumano Sea off the Kii Peninsula, spreading bilaterally toward Kyushu and Suruga Bay at a rupture speed of Vr = 2.7 km/s. It had an estimated magnitude of 7.9 on the surface wave magnitude scale and triggered a devastating tsunami that resulted in thousands of deaths in the Nankai and Tōkai regions of Japan.It is uncertain whether there were two separate earthquakes separated by a short time interval or a single event.  In a later snapshot the larger tsunami is radiating into the Bungo Channel and propagating into the Inland Sea of Japan (Figure 8a; T = 30 min), which enhances the height of the tsunami in the Inland Sea.  Finally, we conducted a tsunami inundation simulation in order to understand the process whereby the tsunami carried sea sand into Ryujin Lake during the Hoei earthquake, using the tsunami simulation results from the new Hoei earthquake model described in section 4. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. For example, historical archives document that at Yonouzu village, at the northern end of Hyuga‐nada, the tsunami was more than 10 m and killed 18 people [Chida et al., 2003; Chida and Nakayama, 2006]. This agrees with the heights of tsunamis observed along the Pacific coast from Cape Ashizuri to Hyuga‐nada during the Hoei earthquake [Hatori, 1974, 1985; Murakami et al., 1996] very consistently. Postseismic deformations of the ground surface during interearthquake cycles gradually resolve such earthquake‐induced deformation to a normal level over tens of years. Nankai, Japan: 1707 Hōei earthquake: Earthquake: On 28 October 1707, during the Hōei era, a magnitude 8.4 earthquake and tsunami up to 10 meters (33 feet) in height struck Tosa Province (Kōchi Prefecture). "How Tsunamis Work - Alex Gendler." It occurred on December 21, 1946, at 04:19 JST (December 20, 19:19 UTC). The waves of the tsunami extended several kilometers inland and as many as a dozen occurred over a one hour period. The bathymetric model of each resolution was provided by the Central Disaster Mitigation Council, Cabinet Office, Government of Japan. The source model also failed to explain the larger tsunami experienced during the Hoei earthquake from Cape Ashizuri to Hyuga‐nada as compared with the tsunami associated with the 1854 Ansei Nankai earthquake. Exactly what the intensity was in Kyushu in 1707 is unclear; we are unaware of any historical documents that permit a meaningful comparison of intensities of the 1707 and 1856 earthquakes. From Deep Sea to on Land, Inter‐plate coupling along the Nanaki trough and southeastward motion along southern part of Kyushu, Tectonic movements of recent 10000 years and observations of historical tsunamis based on coastal lake deposits, Seismic activities along Nankai Trough recorded in coastal lake deposits, Recurrence intervals of super Nankai earthquakes. These correspond to ground upheaval areas associated with the Hoei earthquake (Figure 2). Tsunamis from the 684 Tenmu, 1361 Shokei, and 1707 Hoei earthquakes deposited sand in Ryujin Lake and around the channel connecting it to the sea, but lesser tsunamis from other earthquakes were unable to reach Ryujin Lake. This geometry follows studies on the slow slip events along the Nankai Trough [Hirose and Obara, 2005]. Geology and Geophysics, Physical Our new source model with the source rupture area extended to the Hyuga‐nada explains the large tsunami observed in Kyushu more consistently than previous models. However, it should be kept in mind that objective data, such as shaking intensities and tsunami heights in Kyushu, were rather limited at that time and thus, these data may not well incorporated in their analysis. Most of these monuments were built just after the earthquakes to pray for the repose of the tsunami victims or to sound a warning to inhabitants. The pattern of earthquake ground deformation shows that the area of coseismic ground deformation terminates at the westernmost end of Shikoku, approximately 100 km farther east from Ryujin Lake (Figure 2). Dans le cas du séisme de 1707, les séismes semblent s'être produits de manière simultanée, ou du-moins dans une durée de temps trop courte pour pouvoir être distingués par les sources historiques, Annal of Disas.Prev.Res.Inst., Kyoto Univ. 23 Feb. 2015. These greater earthquakes produce the largest tsunamis from western Shikoku to Kyushu. Thus, the area of the N5′ subfault is now a seismic gap since the Hoei earthquake in 1707. However, these effects on amplifying tsunami subsides ground surface at Ryujin Lake in Kyushu would be very minor due to larger distances, and most tsunami developed by the splay fault propagates toward rectangular direction of the Trough axis but not to Kyushu. IMPROVEMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF WIDE-AREA TSUNAMI SIMULATION THROUGH POLYGONAL REGIONS AND MPI-PARALLELIZATION. Le bilan humain lié au séisme et au tsunami qui s'en est ensuivi est estimé à plus de 5 000 victimes. We thank the Central Disaster Mitigation Council, Cabinet Office, government of Japan, and Yonouzu Promotion Office, Oita Prefecture, Japan, for providing bathymetry map data. A possible explanation is that slow rupture over the N4 subfault segment generated large coseismic ground deformation and therefore a large tsunami, but did not produce strong ground motion.  Recently, a number of geological experiments of onshore lakes have been carried out to study tsunami‐induced deposits on the Pacific coast of central and southwestern Japan in order to better understand the sequence of historical and prehistorical Nankai Trough earthquakes [e.g., Tsukuda et al., 1999; Okamura et al., 1997, 2000, 2004; Tsuji et al., 1998, 2002; Nanayama and Shigeno, 2004; Komatsubara and Fujiwara, 2007; Matsuoka and Okamura, 2009]. The strongest tidal wave registered in Japan so far reached a height of 90 meters.  which is described by four (N1–N4) panels of subfaults might be too simple to demonstrate complicated source rupture history of the Nankai Trough earthquake which should be described by rupture above the subducting Philippine Sea plate and landward dipping splay branch from the plate interface. 5 Tokaido-Nankaido Tsunami. The Ise Bay tsunamis caused more than 8000 deaths and a large amount damage.  support the evidence that seismic energy is now accumulating there that may cause a large earthquake in the future. At this time, the flux of seawater is approximately 1 to 2 m/s at the entrance of the lake and as fast as 5 m/s at the center of the channel. Snapshots of tsunami propagation from the Kii Peninsula to Kyushu derived from simulation at T = 0.2, 5.0, 15.0, and 30.0 min from the earthquake origin time. The geometry and source parameters of each segment are shown in Table 1.  We then modified the geometry of the N5 subfault segment and narrowed it in the direction perpendicular to the trench axis. Inundation of tsunami into the Ryujin Lake derived by tsunami runup simulation. Les mouvements tectoniques dans cette zone de convergence lithosphérique sont à l'origine de nombreux séismes, dont certains rentrent dans la catégorie des mégaséismes. Along‐Strike Variation and Migration of Long‐Term Slow Slip Events in the Western Nankai Subduction Zone, Japan. NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS FOR IMPACTS OF TIDES ON TSUNAMI PROPAGATIONS IN THE SETO INLAND SEA. The tsunami inundation simulation was conducted using a fine nested mesh model that connects gradually different mesh resolution of 30 m, 10 m, and 3.3 m.  Results from a former large‐mesh tsunami simulation, in which height and flux of the tsunami in two horizontal directions at the coast near Ryujin Lake were calculated using the larger (30 m) mesh, were used as inputs in the present tsunami inundation simulation. There are many old monuments of the Nankaido tsunamis of Hoei (Oct. 28, 1707) and the 2nd Ansei (Dec. 24, 1854) along the Osaka and Wakayama coasts, Western Japan.  The results of tsunami inundation simulation indicate that tsunami‐related deposits observed in Ryujin Lake do not occur regularly during Nankai Trough earthquakes but occur during unusually large earthquakes when the fault rupture extends beyond westernmost Shikoku to Hyuga‐nada. Objects, Solid Surface A magnitude 8.4 earthquake caused sea waves as high as 25 m to hammer into the Pacific coasts of Kyushyu, Shikoku and Honshin. Now at Tsunami Engineering Laboratory, Disaster Control Research Center, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. Redeposition of volcaniclastic sediments by a tsunami 4600 years ago at Kushima City, south‐eastern Kyushu, Japan. Reproducibility of spatial and temporal distribution of aseismic slips in Hyuga-nada of southwest Japan. It had a magnitude estimated at 8.6 Ms and triggered a large tsunami. The source rupture area of the new Hoei earthquake source model extends further, to the Hyuga‐nada, more than 70 km beyond the currently accepted location at the westernmost end of Shikoku. Oct 28, 1707. REGARD: A new GNSS‐based real‐time finite fault modeling system for GEONET.  Figure 1 illustrates the Nankai Trough earthquake occurrence pattern for three recent events, the 1944 Tonankai (M7.9) and 1946 Nankai (M8.0) earthquakes, the 1854 Ansei Nankai (M8.4) and Ansei Tokai (M8.4) earthquakes, and the 1707 Hoei earthquake (M8.4).  Hoei earthquake source model. Surface displacement for the 1707 Hoei earthquake calculated using the source model of, The area of tsunami simulation and mesh configuration connecting gradually from coarser 270 m (R1) to finer 90 m (R2) and 30 m (R3) mesh models.  The ground surface deformation pattern derived using subfaults N1 to N5′ is shown in Figure 7b. Then, for several tens of years after the earthquake, gradual upheaval of the ground surface occurs and it recovers the subsided ground surface to a normal level and preserves tsunami deposits by protecting from erosion by sea waves or rains for the long periods of time during the interearthquake cycle. 1586 Ise Bay earthquake and tsunami caused over 8,000 deaths; 1707 Nankaido earthquake and tsunami caused 30,000 deaths; 1771 Ryukyu Islands earthquake-generated tsunami caused over 13,000 deaths ; 1896 Sanriku earthquake and tsunami caused over 27,000 deaths; 1) Alert Information: International PTWC Official Messages (DOC, 381 KB) WC/ATWC Official Messages (DOC, 434 KB) JMA Official … In Figure 11b (T = 19 min), the height of the sea surface began to falls as the tsunami wavefront approached. On the other hand tsunami deposits from the other Nankai Trough earthquakes, which have occurred every 100 to 150 years, do not exist in Ryujin Lake. Introduction to ocean floor networks and their scientific application.  The Hoei earthquake, extending as it did from Suruga Bay to Hyuga‐nada, approximately 700 km, broke five fault segments (N1–N5′), each with a different geometry. Natural hazard information and migration across cities: evidence from the anticipated Nankai Trough earthquake. Machine Learning Algorithms for Real-time Tsunami Inundation Forecasting: A Case Study in Nankai Region. . Géolocalisation sur la carte : Japon. Nankaido, Japan (28 October 1707) A magnitude 8.4 earthquake caused seawaves as high as 25 m to hammer into the Pacific coasts of Kyushyu, Shikoku and Honshin.  We first conducted tsunami simulation for the Hoei earthquake using a source model of An'naka et al. The map shows the Pacific coastline of Kyushu and Shikoku with representative locations (squares). Some researchers have claimed that delayed rupture between subfaults amplifies tsunami height over a wide area due to overlap of individual tsunamis from different fault segments [Kawata et al., 2003; Imai et al., 2010]. Before starting the simulation, we subsided the altitude of the simulation model at −60 cm in consideration of the results of the ground deformation simulation shown in Figure 7b. Thick solid and dashed contour lines illustrate slip delay and advance rate at the plate boundary derived by analysis of GPS data by. The Worst Tsunami in History! Following these new geological and geodetic findings, we revised the source model of the Hoei earthquake which had described by four subfault segments (N1 to N4) by introducing a new N5′ subfault segment on the western side of Nankai earthquake segment (N4). Hondo, Japan Estimated Number of Deaths: 27,000 Year: 1826. Nankaido, Japan This earthquake had a magnitude of 8.4. Interplate Coupling Distribution Along the Nankai Trough in Southwest Japan Estimated From the Block Motion Model Based on Onshore GNSS and Seafloor GNSS/A Observations. The sea waves were as high as 25 m to hammer into the Pacific coasts of Kyushyu, Shikoku and Honshin. Therefore, the Hoei earthquake is often referred as a worst case scenario for earthquakes occurring in the Nankai Trough. It was 300 years ago, but it was one of the tragedies caused by the tsunami in Japan. Coseismic slip resolution along a plate boundary megathrust: The Nankai Trough, southwest Japan, Depth distribution of coseismic slip along the Nankai Trough, Japan, from joint inversion of geodetic and tsunami data, Sources of tsunami and tsunamigenic earthquakes in subduction zones, Origin and evolution of a splay fault in the Nankai accretionary wedge, Numerical simulation of topography change due to tsunamis, Interpretation of the slip distributions estimated using tsunami waveforms for the 1944 Tonankai and 1946 Nankai earthquakes, Detailed coseimic slip distribution of the 1944 Tonankai earthquake estimated from tsunami waveforms, Study of tsunami traces in lake floor sediment of the Lake Hamanako, Prehistorical and historical tsunami traces in lake floor deposits, Oike Lake, Owase City and Suwaike Lake, Kii‐Nagashima City, Mie Prefecture, central Japan, Earthquakes of recent 2000 years recorded in geologic strata, Descriptive table of major earthquakes in and near Japan which were accompanied by damages, Materials for Comprehensive List of Destructive Earthquakes in Japan, Partitioning between seismogenic and aseismic slip as highlighted from slow slip events in Hyuga‐nada, Japan, Source process of the 1944 Tonankai and the 1945 Mikawa earthquake, Difference in the maximum magnitude of interpolate earthquakes off Shikoku and in the Hyuganada region, southwest Japan, inferred from the temperature distribution obtained from numerical modeling: The proposed Hyuganada triangle. Ryujin Lake is now locating over an area of large (150 cm) ground subsidence. Small Bodies, Solar Systems Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. Le séisme de 1707 de l'ère Hōei est un séisme qui s'est produit le 28 octobre 1707 à 14 h (heure locale), dans le sud du Japon. Structural control on the nucleation of megathrust earthquakes in the Nankai subduction zone. The tsunami washed away 1451 houses, caused 1500 deaths in Japan, and was observed on tide gauges in California, Hawaii, and Peru. Because the water level in Ryujin lake is now at mean sea level, it is reasonable to conclude that a large ground subsidence of roughly 60 cm occurred there due to the Hoei earthquake. Le séisme de 1707 a ainsi pu être à l'origine d'un changement de pression dans la chambre magmatique sous le mont Fuji, qui est entré en éruption le 16 décembre 1707, soit 49 jours après le séisme.  In order to better explain the size of the Hoei earthquake tsunami from Cape Ashizuri to Hyuga‐nada, we revised the present source model of the Hoei earthquake developed by An'naka et al.  At 29 min from the time the earthquake started and about 10 min after the beginning of the lake inundation, flow into the lake almost stops (Figure 11d; T = 29 min).  Great interplate earthquakes have occurred at the Nankai Trough at a recurrence interval of approximately 100 to 150 years due to the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate beneath southwestern Japan. The southern coast of Honshu runs in the same direction as the Nankai Trough. The 1944 Tonankai earthquake also triggered a tsunami that affected the neighboring coasts. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 17 octobre 2019 à 16:22. Estimating a Tsunami Source by Sediment Transport Modeling: A Primary Attempt on a Historical/1867 Normal‐Faulting Tsunami in Northern Taiwan. Figure 4b (T = 5.0 min) illustrates two such peaks of elevated sea surface parallel to the trough. In Tosa, 11,170 houses were washed away, and 18,441 people drowned. Damage. It is expecting that the rupture of the N5′ subfault segment sometimes occurs by linkage of the N4 Nankai earthquake segment but it does not occurs independently. The Ise Bay tsunamis caused more than 8000 deaths and a large amount damage. Such larger events do not occur during the regular Nankai Trough earthquake cycle of 100–150 years, but may occur in a hyperearthquake cycle of 300 to 500 years. Casualties.  Figure 10 shows the location and topography of the area surrounding Ryujin Lake. As either simultaneous or individual ruptures of each earthquake segment region, western Nankai subduction zone change nankaido japan tsunami 1707 deaths waves! 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