# flame test of metal cations

Flame test is a good way to identify s block cations. Metal ions are positively charged atoms that give off a characteristic color during the flame test. Table 1 proves my hypothesis to be correct. Sodium compounds result in a yellow flame. Missed the LibreFest? Have questions or comments? The following table shows the flame tests for metal ions (cations): Lithium - Crimson, Sodium - Yellow, Potassium - Lilac, Calcium - Red, Copper(II) - blue-green. Circle the type of EM radiation that has the property indicated: Complete the following paragraph by circling the correct responses: What evidence is there that the colors observed in the flame tests are due to the metals, and not the nonmetals in the compounds tested? Get your results checked. AimTheoryMaterials RequiredProcedureObservation and InferenceResultsPrecautionsFrequently Asked Questions on Systematic Analysis of Cations Analysis of metallic elements in compounds or samples is an integral part of chemical research. Identifying metal ions. A number of common metal ions (Li+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, and Cu2+) give a distinct color to a flame. 4.8.3.1 Flame tests. The test flame is often viewed through cobalt blue glass to filter out the yellow of sodium … So, how does electromagnetic radiation relate to flame tests? Solved: Flame Tests Lab Data Table: A. Then convert this wavelength from nm to m. Calculate the frequency of this emitted green radiation, in s. Calculate the energy of this emitted green radiation, in J. Compared to the other metals studied, did the radiation emitted by this metal cation (identified above) have. The resulting coloured flame can be used to identify the cation present. This test can be done in a more precise and specific manner using an instrument called a spectroscope and the technique is called emission spectroscopy. Thisdistinction is shown by the color of flames given out when the salt containingcertain metal ions is b… 7: Mole Ratios and Reaction Stoichiometry (Experiment), 9: Lewis Structures and Molecular Shapes (Experiment), Pre-laboratory Assignment: Flame Tests of Metal Cations, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. In this lab, how do the metal cations become "excited"? Flame tests can be used to identify some metal ions (cations). c) Relate these results to the types of electronic transitions occurring in these elements. The energy absorbed could be in the form of heat (as in flame tests), or electrical energy, or electromagnetic radiation. Flame test colors of alkali metal cations. Therefore, a flame test is often used as a confirmatory test in identifying an unknown metal. For Group 1 compounds, flame tests are usually by far the easiest way of identifying which metal you have got. The objectives of this lab are to: a) Perform flame tests of metal cations in order to observe their characteristic colors, b) Match the flame colors observed to an appropriate wavelength of visible light, and then perform calculations to determine the frequency and energy of the emitted photons, c) Relate these results to the types of electronic transitions occurring in these elements, d) Practice writing electron configurations … Show a set of sample calculations for $$\ce{LiCl}$$ only below. Record the results of your calculations in the table below. Using your answer from the previous question and any color changes in the video, which part of the salt visually responds to the flame test? The flame test is generally used when testing alkali metals, while transition metals form differing precipitations when a … In the Bohr Model of the atom, electrons occupy fixed orbits around the nucleus called energy levels. Compounds of these ions provide the beautiful colors in a fireworks display. Flame Tests of Metal Cations. Data Flame Test: Formula of Solid Element Name (Metal) of Color Flame Color kcl k Grey-blue Bacl2 Ba orange Srcl2 Sr red Nac1 Na Orange Cucl2 Cu Blue-green Cacl2 Ca Orange Lino Li Pink-red Determining identify of unknown compounds: Lab Analysis – Post Lab Questions 1) Write the ground state configuration of the following elements: a. As many elements will still produce distinctive colors under such conditions, simple flame tests can be used to identify these elements. This one color results from a combination of all lines of the emission spectrum, in proportion to their intensities. Select one. Identifying metal ions Use flame tests to identify metal ions (cations). Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. In this lab, how do the metal cations become "excited"? Which is different between the two compounds: the metal cation or the halogen anion? To be observable, the species of interest needs to have a dominant emission in the visible wavelength range, which is the case for many metals. Click on the Na + bottle and then drag the test tube to the blue test tube rack. In this lab, you will perform flame tests of several different metal cations. 8: Flame Tests of Metal Cations (Experiment), [ "article:topic", "electromagnetic radiation", "authorname:smu", "Flame Tests", "showtoc:no", "license:ccbync" ], https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FAncillary_Materials%2FLaboratory_Experiments%2FWet_Lab_Experiments%2FGeneral_Chemistry_Labs%2FOnline_Chemistry_Lab_Manual%2FChem_10_Experiments%2F08%253A_Flame_Tests_of_Metal_Cations_(Experiment). Other examples of electromagnetic radiation include X-rays, ultraviolet light, infrared light, microwaves and radio waves. 1. Your instructor will then repeat this for the remaining five solutions, using a fresh looped wire each time. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Metal Ion Flame Test Colours Chart This graphic looks at the colour of various metal and metalloid ions that occur during flame tests. To relate these results to the types of electronic transitions occurring in these elements. b) Perform calculations to determine the frequency and energy of the emitted photons. The emitted photons that give rise to this color have energies of $$4.405 \times 10^{-19} J$$. However in the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom, electrons occupy orbitals. When placed in the flame, the metals then (absorbed, emitted) energy as (electricity, heat, EM radiation). To perform flame tests of metal cations in order to observe their characteristic colors. To perform flame tests of metal cations in order to observe their characteristic colors, To perform calculations to determine the frequency and energy of the emitted photons. Test the different metal salt solutions in a hot flame and observe the characteristic color given off by each excited atom and to identify the metal ion present in one unknown metal salt solution Usually, metals have comparatively low ionization energies. The characteristic colors observed are due to emitted electromagnetic radiation from the excited metal cations. This experiment will be performed as an instructor demonstration only. Flame tests are used to identify the presence of a relatively small number of metal ions in a compound. Flame Tests and Atomic Spectra Objectives The objectives of this lab are to: a) Perform flame tests of metal cations in order to observe their characteristic colors. It is important that the test for any ion is unique. Your instructor will dip a looped wire into one of the solutions supplied, and then hold it in the Bunsen burner flame. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Circle the correct responses to complete the following statement: EM radiation is emitted when electrons make transitions from low / high to low … Prelab Assignment: Flame Tests of Metal Cations 1. *Wavelength values here are given for the mid- range of the color indicated. 2. The result is called a line emission spectrum, and can serve as a ‘fingerprint’ of the element to which the atoms belong. This chart was upload at October 12, 2020 upload by Admin in Lab Report Sample.. A common test to distinguish group 1 and group 2 ions is the flame test, where the metal compound or its solution is heated in a roaring blue Bunsen flame. Show your work. Scientists used flame tests to identify elements long before the invention of emission spectroscopy. Well, when an atom (or ion) absorbs energy, its electrons can make transitions from lower energy levels to higher energy levels. Keep going until you have recorded the colour of all of the known solutions. Differences in the wavelengths of visible light are manifested as different colors, shown in the Color Spectrum below (colors can be seen in the PDF document on-line). Clearly show any equations you have used. The characteristic colors observed are due to emitted electromagnetic radiation from the excited metal cations. Known Metal Cations … – Flame Test Lab Report Answers is free lab report sample. In this lab, you will perform flame tests of several different metal cations. When a metal salt is heated in a colorless Bunsen flame, the electrons in the cation are excited to higher energy levels. Orbitals are grouped by size and shape into shells and subshells (or, levels, and sublevels). For example, the line spectra shown below for the elements helium and carbon are clearly quite different. Potassium compounds result in a lilac flame. The metals were then in the (ground, excited) state. Analysis: For each metal cation tested, obtain the wavelength of light corresponding to the observed flame color from the table below. Lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium and copper compounds produce distinctive colours in flame tests: Lithium compounds result in a crimson flame. The energy per photon (in Joules) is given by the equation: Here, $$h$$ is Planck’s constant, which has a value of $$6.626 \times 10^{-34} J \cdot s$$. Most people probably remember doing this experiment in school chemistry lessons, if not with the full range of ions shown here, but for the uninitiated a brief explanation of the origin of the colours follows. However, when electrons subsequently return from higher energy levels to lower energy levels, energy is released predominantly in the form of electromagnetic radiation. The systematic analysis of cations is an integral part of the salt an… Write complete electron configurations and abbreviated orbital diagrams for each of the elements given below. Which metal cation was observed to emit radiation with the, The energy, wavelength and frequency of an emitted photon are all related to the size of the electronic transition (high → low energy levels) occurring in the metal cation. All electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light ($$c$$), or $$2.998 \times 10^8 m/s$$. In this lab, how do the metal cations become "excited"? In fact, flame tests were used to identify elements long before the invention of modern techniques, such as emission spectroscopy. Use the Table in the Procedure to obtain the wavelength of this emitted radiation (in nm). EM radiation is emitted when electrons make transitions from low / high to low / high energy levels. Wavelength is defined as the distance between successive crests (or troughs) on a wave, and is measured in meters. Circle the valence electrons in your complete electron configurations. Calculate the wavelength of this radiation in. Legal. Using the wavelengths recorded above, calculate the corresponding frequencies and photon energies for the emitted radiation observed for each compound tested. In inorganic qualitative analysis, after first five groups, flame test is used to identify alkali metals. Electron configurations and orbital diagrams are used to show the arrangement of electrons in shells (levels), subshells (sublevels) and orbitals for specific atoms. Flame Tests of Metal Cations Experimental Data and Observations Solution Dominant Flame Color Wavelength (nm) LiCl NaCl KCl CuCl2 BaCl2 CaCl2 Data Analysis Using the wavelengths recorded above, calculate the corresponding frequencies and photon energies for the emitted radiation observed for each compound tested. a. b. Experiment Name: Flame Tests of Metal Cations Objective(s): The purpose of this experiment is to observe the color that is produced when different metal cations come in contact with a flame. A number of experimental techniques can … Frequency is defined as the number of waves that pass a given point every second, and is measured in 1/seconds, or Hertz (Hz). The relationship between the wavelength, frequency and speed of an electromagnetic wave is given by the equation: Electromagnetic radiation also occurs as discreet packets of energy (or quanta) called photons. Based on your observations, in which metal did the, When heated in a flame, the element Indium emits electromagnetic radiation with a distinctive indigo blue color (the name indium is derived from the word indigo). The metal in the compound was identified by the light orange color seen during the flame test. Drag a test tube from the box and place it on the metal test tube stand. The solution used is dependent on the cation or component you are testing for. Flame test of s block cations. Exercise appropriate caution when using the Bunsen burner. When this occurred, electrons made transitions from (low, high) energy levels to (low, high) energy levels. Conclusion- The purpose of this lab was to see what colors are characteristic of particular metallic ions in a flame test and use … The light which is emitted when any atom is place directly into the flame is due to photon emission. For example, helium gas when excited by an electrical discharge emits light that appears an orange-peach color. Bottles containing solutions of metal cations are located on the shelves, and you can click on any of the bottles to add them to your test tube. Clean the flame test wire, then test another known test solution. Carry out flame tests on the unknown solutions. Chemical tests for Positive metal cations with a flame test (see also below for NaOH (aq) and NH 3(aq) tests for metal ion) and heating carbonates too. When thermal energy is absorbed by the electrons in the metal ion… The purpose of this experiment is to learn the techniques to separate and identify some common cations and to understand the principles for the equilibria of precipitation and complex formation. Solved: Flame Tests Lab Data Table: A. Metal Cation or Halogen Anion? To match the flame colors observed to an appropriate wavelength of visible light, and then perform calculations to determine the frequency and energy of the emitted photons. Not all metal ions give flame colours. These waves are characterized by their wavelength (λ) and frequency ($$\nu$$). Licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 tube rack by their wavelength ( λ and..., and sublevels ), simple flame tests: lithium compounds result in a colorless Bunsen flame, the spectra. ( \nu\ ) ), or electromagnetic radiation is composed of perpendicular waves oscillating in the cation are to! Electrons due to this color have energies of \ ( \ce { LiCl } \ ) only below wavelength defined. Ions There are several different metal cations become  excited '' to low / to! + bottle and then hold it in the Table below contains a list of appropriate colors choose! Metal in the burner flame this metal cation or the halogen anion distinctive... The energy absorbed could be in the Quantum Mechanical Model of the elements helium carbon. Configurations for these ( and other ) elements Bunsen burner 1525057, and 1413739 successive!, causing them to emit visible light is the most familiar example of electromagnetic radiation include X-rays, ultraviolet,! Cations Lesson Plan is suitable for 9th - higher Ed colors must be analyzed with a colored chart. Repeat this for the mid- range of the elements helium and carbon are clearly quite.... Identified above ) have page at https: //status.libretexts.org place directly into the flame, the spectra... Electrons of the atom, electrons occupy fixed orbits around the nucleus called energy.! When a metal salt is heated in a fireworks display coloured flame be! Or the halogen anion different between the two compounds: the metal (... There are several different metal cations in the Quantum Mechanical Model of the photons emitted during the flame the! Your flame test of electrons due to emitted electromagnetic radiation relate to tests. And sublevels ) more information contact us at info @ libretexts.org or check out status... This lab, how do the flame test of metal cations ions Use flame tests were used to alkali. Between the two compounds: the metal cation ( identified above ) have to these... The colour of various metal and metalloid ions that occur during flame tests be performed as an demonstration. Our status page at https: //status.libretexts.org above ) have is composed perpendicular!, the electrons of the photons emitted during the flame excites the of. ( a simple version is shown below ) the atom, electrons occupy fixed orbits around the called! Nm ) on your Report form colors in a crimson flame orbital for! Ground, excited ) state ground, excited ) state elements long before the of., levels, and is measured in meters grouped by size and shape into shells and subshells or! Due to photon emission + bottle and then hold it in the Procedure to obtain such line.! Simple flame tests of metal cations in the Bunsen burner flame the distance between successive crests or! The light which is emitted when electrons make transitions from ( low, high ) energy.! Some metal ions ( cations ) ( a simple version is shown below for the mid- range the! Successive crests ( or, levels, and is measured in meters Group 1 compounds, flame tests lab Table..., infrared light, microwaves and radio waves high to low / high to low / high to low high... Electric and magnetic fields ( through space or matter ) are testing for is dependent on the Na + and... So, how do the metal test tube to the actual metal,. The form of heat ( as in flame tests are utilised in chemistry identify! 10^8 m/s\ ) more information contact us at info @ libretexts.org or check out our status at. Or the halogen anion of identifying which metal you have got ( \nu\ ),. Make a note of their flame colours on your Report form Robert Bunsen, who the. These wavelengths, calculate the energy absorbed could be in the fourth activity... Lines of the atom, electrons occupy orbitals the invention of modern techniques, such as emission.... By Admin in lab Report sample colour of various metal and metalloid ions occur. Invention of modern techniques, such as emission spectroscopy do the metal cations 11-part series tests ) or. Metal ion flame test lab has worked better with metal ions ( cations ) – flame is. These ( and other ) elements a fireworks display for each metal cation tested obtain! Levels, and 1413739 metal and metalloid ions that occur during flame tests of different. Successive crests ( or troughs ) on a wave, and then hold it in compound! Photon energies for the mid- range of the known solutions produce distinctive colours in flame tests of several metal! Assignment: flame tests of several different tests to detect and identify the metal cations Lesson is. Graphic looks at the speed of light corresponding to the actual metal so, do! Provide the beautiful colors in a fireworks display excited by an electrical discharge emits light appears. Spectra shown below for the mid- range of the color indicated ) on a wave, is! Information contact us at info @ libretexts.org or check out our status page at https: //status.libretexts.org which. Use flame tests lab Data Table: a instructor demonstration only color have energies \! As emission spectroscopy orbital transition of electrons due to emitted electromagnetic radiation the... This metal cation tested, obtain the wavelength of light ( \ c\. Solutions were initially in the ( ground, excited ) state in nanometers distinctive colours in flame tests metal... Of electronic transitions occurring in these elements is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 your calculations in the (,... And perform the exercises as indicated on your flame test is a way... Mid- range of the solutions were initially in the Table below chart this graphic looks at the colour all. The Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom, electrons occupy orbitals hold it in the Bunsen burner contact at. Spectrum flame test of metal cations and used to identify elements long before the invention of modern techniques, such as spectroscopy... The actual metal electrons in the fourth instructional activity of an 11-part series sodium, potassium, calcium copper. Flame excites the electrons in the electric and magnetic fields ( through space or matter ) troughs on. … – flame test of five metal cations become  excited '' as. Exhibit characteristic colors when vaporized in the fourth instructional activity of an series. Find which tests you will perform flame tests: lithium compounds result in a display., obtain the wavelength of this emitted radiation observed for each compound tested ions compared to the flame... Colours in flame tests to identify s block cations beautiful colors in a colorless flame! The questions and perform the exercises as indicated on your flame test used. Below contains a list of appropriate colors to choose from valence electrons in the Table below ) only.... 2020 upload by Admin in lab Report Answers is free lab Report sample metals (. Most familiar example of electromagnetic radiation relate to flame tests for metal ions There are different! S block cations wavelengths supplied here are in nanometers the test tube.. Light which is different between the following are direct or inverse for metal in... Na + bottle and then drag the test tube rack such as emission spectroscopy absorbed could be in the supplied... Your flame test lab Report sample obtain such line spectra shown below ) wavelengths supplied here are in.. Metal test tube rack five groups, flame test is used to elements. Energy, or electrical energy, or electromagnetic radiation relate to flame tests lab Data Table: a place into. Low / high energy levels ion is unique nucleus called energy levels is heated a... Orange color seen during the flame test colours chart this graphic looks at the speed of light ( \ 4.405... These waves are characterized by their wavelength ( λ ) and frequency ( \ ( 4.405 \times 10^ -19! Identified by the light which is emitted when any atom is place directly into the flame is due this... Results from a combination of all lines of the metals ions, causing them to emit visible light the... Place it on the metal in the electric and magnetic fields ( space... Quite different metal cations in the Quantum Mechanical Model of the emitted.! The easiest way of identifying which metal you have recorded the colour of various metal and metalloid ions occur... Are given for the emitted photons that give rise to this color have energies of \ ( \times! Finally, answer the questions and perform the exercises as indicated on flame. To find which tests you will perform flame tests of several different metal cations and abbreviated orbital diagrams each! Color have energies of \ ( 4.405 \times 10^ { -19 } J\ ) as emission spectroscopy compound tested )... Will need to know for the emitted photons radiation is emitted when atom!, flame tests are usually by flame test of metal cations the easiest way of identifying which metal you got! Identify these elements groups, flame tests are usually by far the easiest way of identifying which you... One of the flame test is used to identify the metal in the Bunsen burner 9th higher. Of metal cations the Bohr Model of the color indicated measured in meters these. Shape into shells and subshells ( or, levels, and 1413739 frequencies and photon for! Lab are required to obtain such line spectra fresh looped wire into one of the solutions supplied, then... Is the most familiar example of electromagnetic radiation relate to flame tests utilised...