ben stock cispa

In this paper, we leverage the unique vantage point of the Internet Archive to conduct a historical and longitudinal analysis of how CSP deployment has evolved for a set of 10,000 highly ranked domains. However, the Web servers themselves are only indirectly involved in the corresponding security decision. It's critical that we do our best to create a safe platform, and equally critical that we figure out how to do so without breaking things our users depend upon. To mitigate the impact of markup injection flaws that cause XSS, support for the Content Security Policy (CSP) is nowadays shipped in all browsers. These static approaches are not infallible though and lead to misclassifications. 2013. “25 Million Flows Later - Large-Scale Detection of DOM-Based XSS.” In, Johns, Martin, Sebastian Lekies, and Ben Stock. 2014. “Precise Client-Side Protection against DOM-Based Cross-Site Scripting.” In, Lekies, Sebastian, Ben Stock, and Martin Johns. Ben Stock CISPA - Head of the Secure Web Applications Group. In particular, HideNoSeek uses malicious seeds and searches for similarities at the Abstract Syntax Tree (AST) level between the seeds and traditional benign scripts. In recent years, the Web witnessed a move towards sophisticated client-side functionality. The inclusion of remote scripts via the HTML script tag, however, is exempt from this policy. Before joining CISPA, I was a PhD student and research fellow at the Security Research Group of the University Erlangen-Nuremberg, supervised by Felix Freiling. We tested its compatibility on the Alexa Top 5,000 and found that 30% of these sites could benefit from ScriptProtect’s protection today without changes to their application code. Ben Stock Tenure-Track Faculty at CISPA Helmholtz Center (i.G.) Next to these new insights, we also shed light on the usage of CSP for other use cases, in particular, TLS enforcement and framing control. 2014. Min Suk Kang, National University of Singapore. However, our exploration of alternative communication channels did not suggest a more promising medium. Instead, the SOP relies on information obtained from the domain name system, which is not necessarily controlled by the Web server’s owners. During that time, I was fortunate enough to join Ben Livshits and Ben Zorn at Microsoft Research in Redmond for an internship. On the contrary, our data shows for instance that sites that use HTTPonly cookies are actually more likely to have a Cross-Site Scripting problem. To achieve this we implemented a clone of the Waledac bot named Walowdac. “ScriptProtect: Mitigating Unsafe Third-Party JavaScript Practices.” In, Steffens, Marius, Christian Rossow, Martin Johns, and Ben Stock. During that time, I was fortunate enough to join Ben Livshits and Ben Zorn at Microsoft Research in Redmond for an internship. 2017. “Efficient and Flexible Discovery of PHP Application Vulnerabilities.” In, Stock, Ben, Bernd Kaiser, Stephan Pfistner, Sebastian Lekies, and Martin Johns. To close this research gap, we leverage taint tracking to identify suspicious flows from client-side persistent storage (Web Storage, cookies) to dangerous sinks (HTML, JavaScript, and script.src). A first layer of unanimous voting classifies 93% of our dataset with an accuracy of 99.73%, while a second layer–based on an alternative modules’ combination–labels another 6.5% of our initial dataset with an accuracy over 99%. This coarse approximation of occurring data flows is incapable of reliably stopping attacks which leverage nontrivial injection contexts. For reproducibility and direct deployability of our modules, we make our system publicly available. Saarbrücken, Saarland, Deutschland 263 Kontakte 2017. “Hey, You Have a Problem: On the Feasibility of Large-Scale Web Vulnerability Notification.”, Stock, Ben, Martin Johns, Marius Steffens, and Michael Backes. Nevertheless, it has been shown that attackers with specific and internal knowledge of a target system may be able to produce input samples which are misclassified. In: Computer … Due to the large volume of such malicious scripts, detection systems rely on static analyses to quickly process the vast majority of samples. 2015. In this paper, we assess this potential threat through a thorough survey of the current password manager generation and observable characteristics of password fields in popular Web sites. (2015/2016), Best German Bachelor Thesis (CAST e.V.) To improve the detection, we also combine the predictions of several modules. In recent years, the drive-by malware space has undergone significant consolidation. These small snippets of benign JavaScript code transform non-script markup contained in a page into executable JavaScript, opening the door for bypasses of a deployed CSP. In this paper, we propose JStap, a modular static JavaScript detection system, which extends the detection capability of existing lexical and AST-based pipelines by also leveraging control and data flow information. Since July 2018: Tenure-Track Facultyat the CISPA Helmholtz Center for Information Security 2015. In combination with a taint-aware browsing engine, we can therefore collect important execution trace information for all flaws. With the help of this tool we observed a minimum daily population of 55,000 Waledac bots and a total of roughly 390,000 infected machines throughout the world. The number one programming language in Web applications is PHP, powering more than 80% of the top ten million websites. Motivated by this finding, we propose ScriptProtect, a non-intrusive transparent protective measure to address security issues introduced by external script resources. If a notification report is read by the owner of the vulnerable application, the likelihood of a subsequent resolution of the issues is sufficiently high: about 40%. 2020. In the malware field, learning-based systems have become popular to detect new malicious variants. In practice, JStap outperforms existing systems, which we reimplemented and tested on our dataset totaling over 270,000 samples. “Kizzle: A Signature Compiler for Detecting Exploit Kits.” In, Stock, Ben, Giancarlo Pellegrino, Christian Rossow, Martin Johns, and Michael Backes. 2017). When evaluated over a four-week period, false-positive rates for Kizzle are under 0.03%, while the false-negative rates are under 5%. By using a combination of tracerouting and BGP data, we build statistical models which allow to estimate the TTL within that tolerance level. JavaScript is a browser scripting language initially created to enhance the interactivity of web sites and to improve their user-friendliness. 2015. After evaluating the effectiveness of the deployed countermeasures, we show that more than 80% of the sites are susceptible to attacks via remote script inclusion. Allerdings wird XSS primaer als ein server-seitiges Problem wahrgenommen, motiviert durch das Offenlegen von zahlreichen entsprechenden XSS-Schwachstellen. The Web today is a growing universe of pages and applications teeming with interactive content. To that end, we detail how a server can use active probing to learn TTLs of alleged packet senders. Prior to that, I was a research group leader and previously postdoctoral researcher at the Center for IT-Security, Privacy and Accountability at Saarland University in the group of Michael Backes. This mismatch is exploited by DNS Rebinding. Web-Security research can happen anywhere. Open Access Media. After treating the notification of affected parties as mere side-notes in research, our community has recently put more focus on how vulnerability disclosure can be conducted at scale. The number one programming language in Web applications is PHP, powering more than 80% of the top ten million websites. Click-jacking protection on the modern Web is commonly enforced via client-side security mechanisms for framing control, like the X-Frame-Options header (XFO) and Content Security Policy (CSP). In this paper, we leverage the unique vantage point of the Internet Archive to conduct a historical and longitudinal analysis of how CSP deployment has evolved for a set of 10,000 highly ranked domains. To allow for a better user experience, much functionality is shifted towards the client. “From Facepalm to Brain Bender: Exploring Client-Side Cross-Site Scripting.” In, Johns, Martin, Ben Stock, and Sebastian Lekies. Kizzle is able to generate anti-virus signatures for detecting EKs, which compare favorably to manually created ones. Based on the frequency of these specific patterns, we train a random forest classifier for each module. Mohit Tiwari, UT Austin and Symmetry Systems. Finally, investigating the vulnerable flows originating from storages allows us to categorize them into four disjoint categories and propose appropriate mitigations. In recent years, the Web witnessed a move towards sophisticated client-side functionality. Alley Stoughton, Boston University. Follow their code on GitHub. We instead propose HideNoSeek, a novel and generic camouflage attack, which evades the entire class of detectors based on syntactic features, without needing any information about the system it is trying to evade. Michael Backes CISPA - Scientific Director and Chairman of the Executive Board. The Web, as one of the core technologies of modern society, has profoundly changed the way we interact with people and data through social networks or full-fledged office Web applications. “HideNoSeek: Camouflaging Malicious JavaScript in Benign ASTs.” In, Musch, Marius, Marius Steffens, Sebastian Roth, Ben Stock, and Martin Johns. Sched.com Conference Mobile Apps. To counter these attacks, the browser vendors introduced countermeasures, such as DNS Pinning, to mitigate the attack. To achieve this we implemented a clone of the Waledac bot named Walowdac. (2009/2010). Our analysis shows that 10% of the (distinct) framing control policies in the wild are inconsistent and most often do not provide any level of protection to at least one browser. We observe that by wisely choosing the used amplifiers, the attacker is able to circumvent such TTL-based defenses. This exemption allows an adversary to import and execute dynamically generated scripts while a user visits an attacker-controlled Web site. ‪CISPA Helmholtz Center for Information Security‬ - ‪Cited by 741‬ - ‪Web Security‬ - ‪Network Security‬ - ‪Usable Security‬ Doing so, we automatically generate sensible CSPs for all of the Top 10,000 sites and show that around one-third of all sites would still be susceptible to a bypass through script gadget sideloading due to heavy reliance on third parties which also host such libraries. Cross-site Scripting (XSS) ist eine weit verbreitete Verwundbarkeitsklasse in Web-Anwendungen und kann sowohl von server-seitigem als auch von client-seitigem Code verursacht werden. 2019. “HideNoSeek: Camouflaging Malicious JavaScript in Benign ASTs.” In, Steffens, Marius, Christian Rossow, Martin Johns, and Ben Stock. Before joining CISPA, I was a PhD student and research fellow at the Security Research Group of the University Erlangen-Nuremberg, supervised by Felix Freiling. We tested its compatibility on the Alexa Top 5,000 and found that 30% of these sites could benefit from ScriptProtect’s protection today without changes to their application code. Even though the analysis is entirely static, it yields a high detection accuracy of almost 99.5% and has a low false-negative rate of 0.54%. In this paper, we argue that our community must consider at least four important classes of XSS and present the first systematic study of the threat of Persistent Client-Side XSS, caused by the insecure usage of client-side storages. Thus, it effectively removes the root-cause of Client-Side XSS without affecting first-party code in this respective. But there is also no evidence that the usage of the easy-to- deploy techniques reflects on other security areas. 2017. For this, we comprehensively survey existing communication channels and evaluate their usability in an automated notification process. The direct client-side inclusion of cross-origin JavaScript resources in Web applications is a pervasive practice to consume third-party services and to utilize externally provided libraries. ScriptProtect automatically strips third-party code from the ability to conduct unsafe string-to-code conversions. This paper presents Kizzle, the first prevention technique specifically designed for finding exploit kits. Although this issues has been known for several years under the term Cross-Site Script Inclusion, it has not been analyzed in-depth on the Web. Therefore, in this paper, we present a large-scale study to gain insight into these causes. Our experiments show that Kizzle produces high-accuracy signatures. In general, cross-domain access to such sensitive resources is prevented by the Same-Origin Policy. Throughout the conference, including during the co-located events, you can use our ad-hoc Slack workspace where you can connect with other attendees or reach out to the organizing committee. In this paper, we present JaSt, a low-overhead solution that combines the extraction of features from the abstract syntax tree with a random forest classifier to detect malicious JavaScript instances. As ScriptProtect is realized through a lightweight JavaScript instrumentation, it does not require changes to the browser and only incurs a low runtime overhead of about 6%. To this end, we analyze a set of 1,273 real-world vulnerabilities contained on the Alexa Top 10k domains using a specifically designed architecture, consisting of an infrastructure which allows us to persist and replay vulnerabilities to ensure a sound analysis. “On the Feasibility of TTL-Based Filtering for DRDoS Mitigation.” In, Stock, Ben, Benjamin Livshits, and Benjamin Zorn. From the security perspective, Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) is one of the most nefarious attacks against Web clients. Furthermore, we gathered internal information about the success rates of spam campaigns and newly introduced features like the theft of credentials from victim machines. Since the early days, the SOP was repeatedly undermined with variants of the DNS Rebinding attack, allowing untrusted script code to gain illegitimate access to protected network resources. 2014. We observe that a third of the surveyed sites utilize dynamic JavaScript. Unfortunately, these managers operate by simply inserting the clear-text password into the document’s DOM, where it is accessible by JavaScript. 2016. “Kizzle: A Signature Compiler for Detecting Exploit Kits.” In, Stock, Ben, Giancarlo Pellegrino, Christian Rossow, Martin Johns, and Michael Backes. Seeing these results, we pinpoint future directions in improving security notifications. Kizzle is highly responsive and can generate new signatures within hours. “25 Million Flows Later - Large-Scale Detection of DOM-Based XSS.” In, Stock, Ben, Jan Göbel, Markus Engelberth, Felix Freiling, and Thorsten Holz. In addition, we can hide on average 14 malicious samples in a benign AST of the Alexa top 10, and 13 in each of the five most popular JavaScript libraries. Botnets are the driving force behind several misuses on the Internet, for example spam mails or automated identity theft. To close this research gap, we leverage taint tracking to identify suspicious flows from client-side persistent storage (Web Storage, cookies) to dangerous sinks (HTML, JavaScript, and script.src). Consequently, it is prone to different types of vulnerabilities, such as SQL Injection or Cross-Site Scripting. To understand the reasons behind this, we run a notification campaign and subsequent survey, concluding that operators have often experienced the complexity of CSP (and given up), utterly unaware of the easy-to-deploy components of CSP. Tenure-Track Faculty. Specifically, it replaces benign sub-ASTs by identical malicious ones and adjusts the benign data dependencies–without changing the AST–, so that the malicious semantics is kept after execution. We instead propose HideNoSeek, a novel and generic camouflage attack, which evades the entire class of detectors based on syntactic features, without needing any information about the system it is trying to evade. The current generation of client-side Cross-Site Scripting filters rely on string comparison to detect request values that are reflected in the corresponding response’s HTML. Roth, Sebastian, Michael Backes, and Ben Stock. In combination with the aforementioned redirect logic, this enables us to bypass 10% of otherwise secure CSPs in the wild. This way, JStap can be used as a precise pre-filter, meaning that it would only need to forward less than 1% of samples to additional analyses. Marius Steffens. ... CISPA, Saarland University Saarbrücken, Deutschland. We discuss two attacker models capable of injecting malicious payloads into these storages, i.e., a network attacker capable of temporarily hijacking HTTP communication (e.g., in a public WiFi), and a Web attacker who can leverage flows into storage or an existing reflected XSS flaw to persist their payload. Ben Stock: Date Deposited: 14 Feb 2018 12:47: Last Modified: 14 Apr 2020 10:40: Primary Research Area: NRA4: Secure Mobile and Autonomous Systems: URI: ... CISPA is powered by EPrints 3 which is developed by the School of Electronics and Computer Science at the University of Southampton. ben-stock has 4 repositories available. In addition, I enjoy the challenges provided in Capture the Flag competitions and am always trying to get more students involved in them (especially in our local team saarsec). When evaluated over a four-week period, false-positive rates for Kizzle are under 0.03%, while the false-negative rates are under 5%. I am a tenure-track faculty at the CISPA Helmholtz Center for Information Security. Aurore Fass, Michael Backes, and Ben Stock CISPA Helmholtz Center for Information Security {aurore.fass,backes,stock}@cispa.saarland ABSTRACT Given the success of the Web platform, attackers have abused its main programming language, namely JavaScript, to mount differ-ent types of attacks on their victims. In such an attack, the attacker spoofs the IP address of a victim and sent a flood of tiny packets to vulnerable services which then respond with much larger replies to the victim. ScriptProtect automatically strips third-party code from the ability to conduct unsafe string-to-code conversions. 2018. Though these client-side security mechanisms are certainly useful and successful, delegating protection to web browsers opens room for inconsistencies in the security guarantees offered to users of different browsers. 2015. “The Unexpected Dangers of Dynamic JavaScript.” In, Stock, Ben, Sebastian Lekies, and Martin Johns. We successfully implemented our extended SOP for the Chromium Web browser and report on our implementation’s interoperability and security properties. It is based on a frequency analysis of specific patterns, which are either predictive of benign or of malicious samples. Based on data sets of benign and spoofed NTP requests, we find that a TTL-based defense could block over 75% of spoofed traffic, while allowing 85% of benign traffic to pass. We successfully implemented our extended SOP for the Chromium Web browser and report on our implementation’s interoperability and security properties. Large-scale discovery of thousands of vulnerable Web sites has become a frequent event, thanks to recent advances in security research and the rise in maturity of Internet-wide scanning tools. For reproducibility and direct deployability of our modules, we make our system publicly available. Furthermore, there is a noticeable gap in adoption speed between easy-to-deploy security headers and more involved measures such as CSP. Motivated by this, we investigate the tacit assumption that an attacker cannot learn the correct TTL value. As of May 2020, d is set to 7 days. Here, we find that CSP can be easily deployed to fit those security scenarios, but both lack wide-spread adoption. Defense measures runs in the wild prone to different types of vulnerabilities specific to the of. 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